ISSN(Print): 2709-9636 | ISSN(Online) : 2709-9644 | ISSN-L : 2709-9636

(2021) Volume 2, Issue 4

Manifestations of Iranian Civilization and Culture in Pakistani Urdu Novel (With reference to the Qila Framoshi and Dasht e Soos

Authors:
  1. Bilqees Akhtar
  2. Dr. Tahira Iqbal
Abstract: Iran is a center of civilization since ancient times. Many regions of the world are greatly influenced by Persian culture and civilization. Persian knowledge, art, philosophy and literature are specifically followed. Many genres of Persian had a great impact on Urdu literature. Being situated in neighbourhood, Urdu novels have contents pertaining Persian culture and civilization. Jamila Hashmi in “Dasht. E. soos” and Fahmida Riaz in “Qila framoshi” have presented Persian civilization. Focusing the life of a historic character in “dasht. E. soos”, there is a narration of Islamic mysticism, Persian living styles, habits and beliefs of Iranians. While Fahmida Riaz in “Qila framoshi” under the cover of the initial socialist revolutionary “Mazdac”, introduces the Iran of that time when religions and civilizations were under evolutionary stages in Iran. She presents parsi religion, social mentalities, public beliefs and the occupation of society by parsi leaders in addition to Persian civilization of that era from historic point of view.
Keyswords: Iran, Civilization, Culture, Ancient, Persian, Urdu Novel, Historic
Pages: 01-13
Article: 1 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)1
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)1
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Symbolism in Amin Rahat Chughtai’s Poetry with Particular Reference to His Work Bhid Bhanwar

Authors:
  1. Anjum Mobeen
Abstract: Amin Rahat Chughtai holds a special position as a researcher, critic poet particularly of Naat and Hikko. Bhid Bhanwar is his collection of poems and ghazals published in 1984. His poems and ghazals has similar tone and style. On one hand his poems fulfil the criteria of modern poem and on the other hand his poem is rooted in the tradion. He follows a particular system of symbols in his poetry. This system is based in four main symbols forest, alley or street, fire and mirror. Beside there is a variety of topics in his poetry. His poetry deals with feelings, love, affection, excitement, self realization relationship with the tradition of past, problems of urban life, indifference of politicians. These are the issues every refined reader would like to read.
Keyswords: Amin Rahat Chughtai, Researcher, Critic, Naat, Hikko, Ghid Bhanwar, Poems, Ghazals
Pages: 14-26
Article: 2 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)2
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)2
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Tradition of Urdu Drama and Tele Drama of PTV Center Lahore: A thought Provoking and Artistic Review

Authors:
  1. Muhammad Jamil Ahmad Barvi
  2. Dr. Fehmida Tabassum
Abstract: Drama has always been so powerful medium taht it had permeated every form of communication. Although with the passage of time and growth of civilization new form of narratives expression.e.g prose, essay, fiction, poetry etc emerged but could not surpass the supermacy of drama and dialogue.It was this power of the dramd which made it JJpart of psalms and scriptures. Lahore being thJe heart of Pakistan, presents a strong cultural and social influence, PTV Lahore center is honoured to present the very true picture of country's cultured hub. Urdu drama remains the hall mark of PTV Lahore center and has been the champion due to its quality production coupled with the depth of script and the level of direction.
Keyswords: Drama, Communication, Civilization, Culture, Production, Script, PTV Lahore
Pages: 27-42
Article: 3 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)3
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)3
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Impacts of the partition of Hind on A Hameed’s Novel “Darbay

Authors:
  1. Dr. Robina Rashid
  2. Dr. Muhammad Rahman
  3. Dr. Bismina Siraj
Abstract: A Hameed was a prominent story writer and novelist of Urdu. He authored a large number of books and got fame through his biography and travelogue books. A Hameed had an impressive writing style which attracted the readers. He made perfervid illustriousness in the realm of Urdu Literature through his writings especially by his novels and stories. Most of his novels have been published after the partition of India because his literary narratives and norms badly confronted the consequences of the Partition. His first novel ’’ Darbay’’ portraits and encompasses the entire happenings and events took place during the partition. In addition to providing the succinct contemporary review of the most significant issue of the refugees, the author also evaluates social, economic and political instabilities of citizens of the newly born state. The Novel’’ Darbay’’ was written in the same context.
Keyswords: Impacts, Partition, Succinct, Illustriousness, Encompass, Portrait, Contemporary, Perfervid
Pages: 43-51
Article: 4 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)4
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)4
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Subjective Study of Agha Baber’s Short Stories

Authors:
  1. Rabia Rehman
  2. Prof. Dr. Robina Rafiq
Abstract: One of the striking and significant name of Urdu Fiction in forties was Agha Baber. He is known as fictionist, Playwriter, Columnist, Interpreter and Autobiographer, but his real recognition is his fiction writing. Agha Baber belongs to that era of Pakistan’s Fiction in which variety of subjects and techniques were introduced by the legendary fictionists. Agha Baber’s major themes are human Physiology, emotions and sentiments. He enlighted the hidden corner of human mind and psychology in his fiction. He discussed “Sex” ewelessly. He is known for his erotic aspects in fiction.This research article sightfully evaluate the subject matters of his fiction work.
Keyswords: Agha Baber, Fiction, Legendary, Psychology, Sex, Rcognization, subject matter
Pages: 52-72
Article: 5 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)5
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)5
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Intellectual and Artistic and Linguistic Review of Ghalib's Ghazal

Authors:
  1. Muhammad Mohsin Khalid
  2. Dr. Syeda Attia Khalid
Abstract: Mirza Ghalib enjoys a unique place in Urdu literature. The message of universalism in his poetry combined with his philosophical approach grant him the stature which is yet to be achieved by any other Urdu poet. In the following pages an effort is being made to have an overview of his poetry examining it at different yardsticks. The purpose is to highlight the salient characteristics of his personality as well as of his poetry. One can hardly doubt the depth of thoughts and technical mastery in his poetry which set very high standards not only in Urdu poetry but the poetry of the world at large. The dominant characteristic of his poetry is his logical way of narration. His poetry contains unparalleled pieces of imaginary. The use of words depict a great command on language. The language is used as an art in his couplets and it deeply reflects the societal values of not only his time but also the gradual evaluation of civilisations. One can easily find a musical rhythm used in his poetry like an artist. It is hard to decide whether Ghalib became great for writing his Ghazals or Urdu ghazal was honoured to have a poet like Him. There is no doubt that he is the brightest moon in the galaxy of classical Urdu Ghazal.
Keyswords: Mirza Ghalib, Urdu Literature, Poetry, Philosophical, Imaginary
Pages: 73-88
Article: 6 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)6
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)6
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Yousuf Khan Kambal Posh First Man and Rafia Nazli Sultan First Female Travelogue

Authors:
  1. Dr. Sadaf Fatima
  2. Uzma Noreen
Abstract: Travelogue, an important feature of Urdu literature is used to narrate one’s observation and experiences during a particular travel. In fact it is a big source to know about the values, norms and geographical features of an area. A travelogue is considered at its best when among other things it entails the civic and academic aspects also. Yousaf Khan “Kambale posh” a resident of Hyderabad wrote the first ever travelogue in Urdu with the name of “Tareikh e yusfi” It is also known by the name of “Ajaiybaat e Frang” His style is soft attractive and heart touching. The first female to write a Travelodge in Urdu is Nazli Raffia Sultan, who wrote about her Europe travel with the name of “Sair e Europe “ Subsequently so many writers have contributed in this field.
Keyswords: Travelogue, Observation. Civic, Contribution and Europe
Pages: 89-97
Article: 7 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)7
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)7
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Metaphysical Elements in Wali Deccani's Poetry

Authors:
  1. Nasir Ali
  2. Dr. Mamuna Subhani
Abstract: Wali Deccani is one of the earliest established poets of Urdu. He has the status of a teacher in Urdu poetry. Secondly, he also introduces new trends in Urdu poetry by using his artistic abilities. His contribution to creating elegance and sweetness in Urdu poetry had an important position in history. When we study the period of Wali, we found that the ideology of Wahdat-ul-Wujud was in vogue in India at that time. It was this ideology that served the people from their metaphysical thinking. The important thing we see in Wali's method is his journey from metaphor to reality. In his ghazals, he seems to be an aesthetic or idolater. But in reality he is endeavoring and adoring the inner soul in this veil. This article will discuss about metaphysical components of his ghazals.
Keyswords: Urdu Literature, language, Poetry, Sufism, Metaphysics, Elements
Pages: 98-106
Article: 8 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)8
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)8
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Tradition of Lamentation (NOHA) in Bahawalpur (Former State)

Authors:
  1. Munir Ahmed
  2. Dr. Saira Irshad
  3. Muhammad Mohsin Khan
Abstract: This article consists of Urdu Noha (Lamentation), Definitions of Noha, tradition of Noha in brief and tradition of Noha in Bahawalpur (Former State) before and after 1947. Moreover, brief biographies of various poets’ alongwith samples from their poetry and its analysis are also part of this article.
Keyswords: Noha (Lamentation) , Bahawalpur, Meer Anees, Hayat Meerthi, Abdullah Akhgar, Nafees Fatehpuri, Janbaz Jatoi, Hameed Naqvi, Majid Qureshi, Abdul Aziz Akhtar Sheikh
Pages: 107-128
Article: 9 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)9
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)9
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Jihad e Afghan, Historicism, New historicism and "Qalla Jangee" a Novel (A Post Modern Reading)

Authors:
  1. Yousaf Noon
  2. Dr. Qazi Abid
Abstract: "Qalla Jangee”, a novel written by Mustansar Hussain Tarar in the background of Afghan Jihad, represents the both- historicism and new historicism. Through different characters he presented the complete story of Afghan Jihad including all its phases i.e. beginning, climax and end. To attain the target of disintegration of USSR, America fabricated a fake narrative of 'Jihad' and utilized Pakistan as a chess man. Later on, when America needed to put aside Taliban, it again utilized Pakistan as a chess man. In " Qalla Jangee" Tarar reveals the fact of Jihad e Afghan projecting seven characters who were survived in a cell. New historicism is the rebirth of history. It deals with the characters and aspects which were ignored or misinterpreted. Tarar particularly depicted the outcomes of the war which affected Afghan masses. History ignored these outcomes earlier.
Keyswords: Taliban, Jihad, Qalla Jangee, Historicism, New Historicism
Pages: 129-146
Article: 10 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)10
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)10
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Bahadar Shah Zafar’s Ghazal in the light of the articles

Authors:
  1. Matloob Hussain
  2. Muhammad Zaman Parvez
Abstract: Bahadur Shah Zafar is the most important poet of classical Urdu ghazal. His ghazal reflects the conditions of his time. His life is a practical picture of rise and fall. He had to endure extremes of grief and sorrow in his life. He was the last king of the Mughal dynasty. He was imprisoned and sent to Rangoon as a punishment. He spent the last days of his life in great pain and loneliness. In his ghazals, love, social issues, grief and Sufism are frequently described. His solemns are enriched with meanings. His style of writing is simple and charming. His poetry is also technically impressive. That is why his poetry has been immortalized
Keyswords: Bahadur shah zafar, rise and fall, grief and sorrow, Rangoon, loneliness, Sufism, solemns
Pages: 147-159
Article: 11 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)11
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)11
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Style of Samiullah Qureshi’s Ghazal (A Critical Review)

Authors:
  1. Azhar Khan
  2. Dr. Mamuna Subhani
Abstract: Prof. Samiullah Qureshi is recognized as a renowned and celebrated poet, critic and biographer. This article presents critical evaluation of the stylistic aspects of his verse (Ghazal). His poetry is embellished with the use of multiple figures of speech and poetic characteristics. Apart from the conventional fashion, he has also made use of modern poetic style. This article elaborates and illustrates the technical merits of his ghazal.
Keyswords: Ghazal, Poetry, Style, Simile, Rhythm, Samiullah
Pages: 160-172
Article: 12 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)12
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)12
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Jameel Aazar as an Essay Critic

Authors:
  1. Bakht Muhammad Khan
  2. Dr. Muhammad Rehman
  3. Dr. Mutahir Shah
Abstract: Inshaieya is a prominent form of prose writing in Urdu literature. A number of writers have proved their knowledge and skill in the field of essay writing. Jamil Aazar is one of such writers. Not only did he write great essays but also critically appreciated several famous Inshaeyas. Several other critics have acknowledged Jamil Aazar’s critical acumen by declaring him as the father of criticism on Inshaeya,s writing, especially when he is an established critic whose major contribution is to elevate this form to new heights. The present article is an effort to highlight his contribution to Urdu literature in this connection.
Keyswords: Prelude, Animal Passions, Philosophical Mind
Pages: 173-181
Article: 13 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)13
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)13
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Scientific and Intellectual Aspects of Urdu Ghazal in the State of Jammu and Kashmir: A Historical Analysis of the Poetry of "Bashir Sarafi"

Authors:
  1. Dr. Yousf Mir
  2. Amar Jahangir
  3. Dr. Anbrin Khawaja
Abstract: In this research paper, the researcher takes an adventure to shed light on Ghazal through an analysis, comprehensively; keeping in view Basher Sarfi's Ghazal. It is a living, dynamic of Urdu poetry. In Urdu poetry, Ghazal has the highest, most significant and richest capital. The main reason for the success and popularity of Ghazal is that it has been able to keep up with the emotions and feelings of the people of Urdu in every era. Basher Sarfi’s poetry depicts sorrow, grief, migration, fear, travel, sadness, death, despair, grievances, and instability of the world, self-talk, patriotism, modern conditions, oppressive views of the beloved, claims, and local, national and international references. References to Kashmir as well as landscapes, patriotism, remembrance of victory, literary attitudes after the partition of Kashmir, resistance elements, beauty and love, love, sincerity, truth, religion, loneliness, life, resistance, optimism , satire and humorous elements, modern sensibility, class consciousness, perception of social issues, perception of civic and social attitudes, political consciousness, ideal of world peace, reference to global attitudes and events, local culture, cultural elements and many other symbols and references. A variety of topics and intellectual and artistic trends appear to emerge. Two methods are used to determine the position and status, one is the thematic study of creation and the other is the technical study. Thematic studies look at whether the creator has incorporated new themes into his work, that is, thematic diversity. These are the basic things that are seen and tested in the thematic study.
Keyswords: Ghazal, Thematic, Diversity, Trends, Patriotism, Consciousness, Perception
Pages: 182-194
Article: 14 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)14
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)14
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A Study of Baloch Woman’s Character in Urdu Travelogues

Authors:
  1. Nazia Kanwal
  2. Dr. Saima Nazir
Abstract: Balochistan is a remote and underdeveloped region replete with the wealth old culture and civilization. Our Urdu travelogue writers have splendidly explored this treasure in their writings. These writers have adroitly portrayed such an excellent depictionof this distant region which rightly demonstrates the overall picture of Balochistan in terms of its old culture, civilization and life style. Urdu travelogues have brought every nook and corner of Balochistan’s civilization and culture at forefront. The topic of Baloch woman is in itself an embodiment of oppressed woman. This poor daughter of Eve not only carries the burden of life but bears the brunt of associated burdens and reflects the pitiable and suppressed being. Our writers have truly brought at surface the injustices meted out to Baloch woman and provided the readers of literature invaluable stock of information regarding miserable condition of Baloch woman. These writers have given voice to the oppressd woman and provided her place in their writings which helped her message to reach out to the readers. This article has attempted to unmask the unique culture of Baluchistan. The article under study will deeply analyze the miseries of Baloch woman. Travelogue is primary genre of urdu literature which consists of observable incidents. A travelogue writer notes down his/her first hand and empirical observation which testifies the worth of this genre.
Keyswords: Urdu travelogue, oppressed woman of Balochistan, Ancient civilization and culture, mirror/reflection of Balochistan Stranger in own homeland, Kallat’s travelogue
Pages: 195-202
Article: 15 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)15
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)15
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Distinctive Phraseology in the Poetry of Faiz

Authors:
  1. Muhammad Azhar Iqbal
  2. Dr. Noreena Tehreem Babar
Abstract: Faiz Ahmad Faiz is an eminent poet of the Twentieth Century. His poetry is known to be a beautiful fusion of romance, revolution and progressive philosophy. But the study of artistic aspect in his poetry is also very significant. The artistic evolution in his poetry seems to be at a greater level than that in the poetry of his contemporaries. The fame of Faiz Ahmad Faiz also rests in his distinctive style of writing. The eminent features of his poetic style include his polite manner, melody, musicality and lyrical quality. The apt use of words and phrases adds to the spontaneous overflow of powerful feeling and melodious quality of his poetry. Thus, a large variety of classical as well as modern phraseology is found in his poetic style and this feature provides a great artistic worth to the poetry of Faiz Ahmad Faiz.
Keyswords: Phraseology, Romance, Revolution, Progressive, Artistic, Poetic Style, Polite manner, Melody, Musicality, Lyrical equality, Overflow
Pages: 203-220
Article: 16 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)16
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)16
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Ideology in the critique of Fateh Muhammad Malik

Authors:
  1. Imran Azam Raza
  2. Dr. Tabassum Kashmiri
Abstract: Professor Fateh Muhammad Malik (Born 18 June 1936) a renowned Pakistani Scholar of Urdu Language and literature. His literary contributions towards various branches of Urdu Literature have been acknowledged by prominent critics and literary circles. His attachment with the manifesto of Islamic theories, Pakistan and Muslim Nation Urdu writer, declare him a noted critic and scholar of Urdu literature. He developed his own peculiar style of his literary writings, which distinguished him from his contemporaries. In his literary works, he deals with the present-day subjects of his times. Malik passionately wrote and spoke about the Urdu language, the relevance of Pakistan’s ideology and Iqbal’s rediscovery of Islam for our times. They serve as his reference marks for judging all literature, and Malik is considered an authority on these subjects. A recipient of the highest civilian award, the Sitara-e-Imtiaz, he has written works that have appeared in prominent literary magazines and he has authored famous books such as Ta’asubaat(Prejudices), Tehseen-o-Tardeed (Praise and Denial) and Andaaz-e-Nazar (Perspective). He served for a long time at different renowned educational institutions and deliverd lectures in different countries. Most importantly, he stands out from his peers for championing the notion that all literature has to subscribe to an ideology — a moot point for many who oppose his views on literature. His style of critique is rather distinctive: he quotes long passages from the literary piece in question to help the readers understand the work and the writer rather than promoting himself. His foremost consideration while judging a work is whether it contributes to society. A self-confessed progressive, Malik’s staunch views on Pakistan’s ideology may hint otherwise: he asserts that Pakistan’s existence and progress hinges on Iqbal’s thought, which serves as a protective wall for the Subcontinent’s Muslims. However his towering legacy in the field of literary criticism is undeniably his biggest contribution.
Keyswords: Manifesto, Islamic theories, Nation, Islam, Critic, Sitara-e-imtiaz, Prejudices, Iqbal, Peers, Idealogy, Progressive, legacy
Pages: 221-232
Article: 17 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)17
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)17
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