ISSN(Print): 2709-9636 | ISSN(Online) : 2709-9644 | ISSN-L : 2709-9636

(2021) Volume 2, Issue 4

Manifestations of Iranian Civilization and Culture in Pakistani Urdu Novel (With reference to the Qila Framoshi and Dasht e Soos

Authors:
  1. Bilqees Akhtar
    Ph. D Scholar, Department of Urdu, Govt. College Women University Faisalabad
  2. Dr. Tahira Iqbal
    Professor, Department of Urdu, Govt. College Women University Faisalabad
Abstract: Iran is a center of civilization since ancient times. Many regions of the world are greatly influenced by Persian culture and civilization. Persian knowledge, art, philosophy and literature are specifically followed. Many genres of Persian had a great impact on Urdu literature. Being situated in neighbourhood, Urdu novels have contents pertaining Persian culture and civilization. Jamila Hashmi in “Dasht. E. soos” and Fahmida Riaz in “Qila framoshi” have presented Persian civilization. Focusing the life of a historic character in “dasht. E. soos”, there is a narration of Islamic mysticism, Persian living styles, habits and beliefs of Iranians. While Fahmida Riaz in “Qila framoshi” under the cover of the initial socialist revolutionary “Mazdac”, introduces the Iran of that time when religions and civilizations were under evolutionary stages in Iran. She presents parsi religion, social mentalities, public beliefs and the occupation of society by parsi leaders in addition to Persian civilization of that era from historic point of view.
Keyswords: Iran, Civilization, Culture, Ancient, Persian, Urdu Novel, Historic
Pages: 01-13
Article: 1 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)1
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)1
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Symbolism in Amin Rahat Chughtai’s Poetry with Particular Reference to His Work Bhid Bhanwar

Authors:
  1. Anjum Mobeen
    Lecturer, Department of Urdu, NUML, Islamabad
Abstract: Amin Rahat Chughtai holds a special position as a researcher, critic poet particularly of Naat and Hikko. Bhid Bhanwar is his collection of poems and ghazals published in 1984. His poems and ghazals has similar tone and style. On one hand his poems fulfil the criteria of modern poem and on the other hand his poem is rooted in the tradion. He follows a particular system of symbols in his poetry. This system is based in four main symbols forest, alley or street, fire and mirror. Beside there is a variety of topics in his poetry. His poetry deals with feelings, love, affection, excitement, self realization relationship with the tradition of past, problems of urban life, indifference of politicians. These are the issues every refined reader would like to read.
Keyswords: Amin Rahat Chughtai, Researcher, Critic, Naat, Hikko, Ghid Bhanwar, Poems, Ghazals
Pages: 14-26
Article: 2 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)2
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)2
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Tradition of Urdu Drama and Tele Drama of PTV Center Lahore: A thought Provoking and Artistic Review

Authors:
  1. Muhammad Jamil Ahmad Barvi
    Scholar PhD Urdu, Federal Urdu University, Islamabad
  2. Dr. Fehmida Tabassum
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Federal Urdu University, Islamabad
Abstract: Drama has always been so powerful medium taht it had permeated every form of communication. Although with the passage of time and growth of civilization new form of narratives expression.e.g prose, essay, fiction, poetry etc emerged but could not surpass the supermacy of drama and dialogue.It was this power of the dramd which made it JJpart of psalms and scriptures. Lahore being thJe heart of Pakistan, presents a strong cultural and social influence, PTV Lahore center is honoured to present the very true picture of country's cultured hub. Urdu drama remains the hall mark of PTV Lahore center and has been the champion due to its quality production coupled with the depth of script and the level of direction.
Keyswords: Drama, Communication, Civilization, Culture, Production, Script, PTV Lahore
Pages: 27-42
Article: 3 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)3
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)3
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Impacts of the partition of Hind on A Hameed’s Novel “Darbay

Authors:
  1. Dr. Robina Rashid
    Lecturer, Department of Urdu, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University, Peshawar
  2. Dr. Muhammad Rahman
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Hazara University, Mansehra
  3. Dr. Bismina Siraj
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University Peshawar
Abstract: A Hameed was a prominent story writer and novelist of Urdu. He authored a large number of books and got fame through his biography and travelogue books. A Hameed had an impressive writing style which attracted the readers. He made perfervid illustriousness in the realm of Urdu Literature through his writings especially by his novels and stories. Most of his novels have been published after the partition of India because his literary narratives and norms badly confronted the consequences of the Partition. His first novel ’’ Darbay’’ portraits and encompasses the entire happenings and events took place during the partition. In addition to providing the succinct contemporary review of the most significant issue of the refugees, the author also evaluates social, economic and political instabilities of citizens of the newly born state. The Novel’’ Darbay’’ was written in the same context.
Keyswords: Impacts, Partition, Succinct, Illustriousness, Encompass, Portrait, Contemporary, Perfervid
Pages: 43-51
Article: 4 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)4
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)4
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Subjective Study of Agha Baber’s Short Stories

Authors:
  1. Rabia Rehman
    Ph.D. Scholar (Urdu), Assistant Professor (Urdu), Govt. Associate College for Women, Yazman
  2. Prof. Dr. Robina Rafiq
    Chairperson, Department of Urdu, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Abstract: One of the striking and significant name of Urdu Fiction in forties was Agha Baber. He is known as fictionist, Playwriter, Columnist, Interpreter and Autobiographer, but his real recognition is his fiction writing. Agha Baber belongs to that era of Pakistan’s Fiction in which variety of subjects and techniques were introduced by the legendary fictionists. Agha Baber’s major themes are human Physiology, emotions and sentiments. He enlighted the hidden corner of human mind and psychology in his fiction. He discussed “Sex” ewelessly. He is known for his erotic aspects in fiction.This research article sightfully evaluate the subject matters of his fiction work.
Keyswords: Agha Baber, Fiction, Legendary, Psychology, Sex, Rcognization, subject matter
Pages: 52-72
Article: 5 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)5
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)5
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Intellectual and Artistic and Linguistic Review of Ghalib's Ghazal

Authors:
  1. Muhammad Mohsin Khalid
    Ph.D. Scholar (Urdu), Northern University, Nowshera
  2. Dr. Syeda Attia Khalid
    Assistant Professor, Northern University, Nowshera
Abstract: Mirza Ghalib enjoys a unique place in Urdu literature. The message of universalism in his poetry combined with his philosophical approach grant him the stature which is yet to be achieved by any other Urdu poet. In the following pages an effort is being made to have an overview of his poetry examining it at different yardsticks. The purpose is to highlight the salient characteristics of his personality as well as of his poetry. One can hardly doubt the depth of thoughts and technical mastery in his poetry which set very high standards not only in Urdu poetry but the poetry of the world at large. The dominant characteristic of his poetry is his logical way of narration. His poetry contains unparalleled pieces of imaginary. The use of words depict a great command on language. The language is used as an art in his couplets and it deeply reflects the societal values of not only his time but also the gradual evaluation of civilisations. One can easily find a musical rhythm used in his poetry like an artist. It is hard to decide whether Ghalib became great for writing his Ghazals or Urdu ghazal was honoured to have a poet like Him. There is no doubt that he is the brightest moon in the galaxy of classical Urdu Ghazal.
Keyswords: Mirza Ghalib, Urdu Literature, Poetry, Philosophical, Imaginary
Pages: 73-88
Article: 6 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)6
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)6
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Yousuf Khan Kambal Posh First Man and Rafia Nazli Sultan First Female Travelogue

Authors:
  1. Dr. Sadaf Fatima
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, University of Karachi
  2. Uzma Noreen
    Scholar Ph.D Urdu, G.C Women University, Sialkot
Abstract: Travelogue, an important feature of Urdu literature is used to narrate one’s observation and experiences during a particular travel. In fact it is a big source to know about the values, norms and geographical features of an area. A travelogue is considered at its best when among other things it entails the civic and academic aspects also. Yousaf Khan “Kambale posh” a resident of Hyderabad wrote the first ever travelogue in Urdu with the name of “Tareikh e yusfi” It is also known by the name of “Ajaiybaat e Frang” His style is soft attractive and heart touching. The first female to write a Travelodge in Urdu is Nazli Raffia Sultan, who wrote about her Europe travel with the name of “Sair e Europe “ Subsequently so many writers have contributed in this field.
Keyswords: Travelogue, Observation. Civic, Contribution and Europe
Pages: 89-97
Article: 7 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)7
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)7
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Metaphysical Elements in Wali Deccani's Poetry

Authors:
  1. Nasir Ali
    PhD Scholar, Department of Urdu, Government College University Faisalaba
  2. Dr. Mamuna Subhani
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Government College University Faisalabad
Abstract: Wali Deccani is one of the earliest established poets of Urdu. He has the status of a teacher in Urdu poetry. Secondly, he also introduces new trends in Urdu poetry by using his artistic abilities. His contribution to creating elegance and sweetness in Urdu poetry had an important position in history. When we study the period of Wali, we found that the ideology of Wahdat-ul-Wujud was in vogue in India at that time. It was this ideology that served the people from their metaphysical thinking. The important thing we see in Wali's method is his journey from metaphor to reality. In his ghazals, he seems to be an aesthetic or idolater. But in reality he is endeavoring and adoring the inner soul in this veil. This article will discuss about metaphysical components of his ghazals.
Keyswords: Urdu Literature, language, Poetry, Sufism, Metaphysics, Elements
Pages: 98-106
Article: 8 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)8
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)8
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Tradition of Lamentation (NOHA) in Bahawalpur (Former State)

Authors:
  1. Munir Ahmed
    PhD Scholar, Department of Urdu, Government Graduate College, Khanpur
  2. Dr. Saira Irshad
    Lecturer, Department of Urdu, Govt. Sadiq College Women University, Bahawalpur
  3. Muhammad Mohsin Khan
    PhD Scholar, Department of Urdu, Bahauddin Zakriya University, Multan
Abstract: This article consists of Urdu Noha (Lamentation), Definitions of Noha, tradition of Noha in brief and tradition of Noha in Bahawalpur (Former State) before and after 1947. Moreover, brief biographies of various poets’ alongwith samples from their poetry and its analysis are also part of this article.
Keyswords: Noha (Lamentation) , Bahawalpur, Meer Anees, Hayat Meerthi, Abdullah Akhgar, Nafees Fatehpuri, Janbaz Jatoi, Hameed Naqvi, Majid Qureshi, Abdul Aziz Akhtar Sheikh
Pages: 107-128
Article: 9 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)9
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)9
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Jihad e Afghan, Historicism, New historicism and "Qalla Jangee" a Novel (A Post Modern Reading)

Authors:
  1. Yousaf Noon
    PhD Scholar, Department of Urdu, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan
  2. Dr. Qazi Abid
    Professor, Department of Urdu, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan
Abstract: "Qalla Jangee”, a novel written by Mustansar Hussain Tarar in the background of Afghan Jihad, represents the both- historicism and new historicism. Through different characters he presented the complete story of Afghan Jihad including all its phases i.e. beginning, climax and end. To attain the target of disintegration of USSR, America fabricated a fake narrative of 'Jihad' and utilized Pakistan as a chess man. Later on, when America needed to put aside Taliban, it again utilized Pakistan as a chess man. In " Qalla Jangee" Tarar reveals the fact of Jihad e Afghan projecting seven characters who were survived in a cell. New historicism is the rebirth of history. It deals with the characters and aspects which were ignored or misinterpreted. Tarar particularly depicted the outcomes of the war which affected Afghan masses. History ignored these outcomes earlier.
Keyswords: Taliban, Jihad, Qalla Jangee, Historicism, New Historicism
Pages: 129-146
Article: 10 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)10
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)10
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Bahadar Shah Zafar’s Ghazal in the light of the articles

Authors:
  1. Matloob Hussain
    Lecturer, Department of Urdu, Govt. Post Graduate College, Sahiwal
  2. Muhammad Zaman Parvez
    Ph.D Scholar, Department of Urdu, Govt. College University, Faisalabad
Abstract: Bahadur Shah Zafar is the most important poet of classical Urdu ghazal. His ghazal reflects the conditions of his time. His life is a practical picture of rise and fall. He had to endure extremes of grief and sorrow in his life. He was the last king of the Mughal dynasty. He was imprisoned and sent to Rangoon as a punishment. He spent the last days of his life in great pain and loneliness. In his ghazals, love, social issues, grief and Sufism are frequently described. His solemns are enriched with meanings. His style of writing is simple and charming. His poetry is also technically impressive. That is why his poetry has been immortalized
Keyswords: Bahadur shah zafar, rise and fall, grief and sorrow, Rangoon, loneliness, Sufism, solemns
Pages: 147-159
Article: 11 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)11
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)11
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Style of Samiullah Qureshi’s Ghazal (A Critical Review)

Authors:
  1. Azhar Khan
    PhD Scholar, Department of Urdu, Government College University Faisalabad
  2. Dr. Mamuna Subhani
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Government College University Faisalabad
Abstract: Prof. Samiullah Qureshi is recognized as a renowned and celebrated poet, critic and biographer. This article presents critical evaluation of the stylistic aspects of his verse (Ghazal). His poetry is embellished with the use of multiple figures of speech and poetic characteristics. Apart from the conventional fashion, he has also made use of modern poetic style. This article elaborates and illustrates the technical merits of his ghazal.
Keyswords: Ghazal, Poetry, Style, Simile, Rhythm, Samiullah
Pages: 160-172
Article: 12 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)12
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)12
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Jameel Aazar as an Essay Critic

Authors:
  1. Bakht Muhammad Khan
    PhD Scholar, Department of Urdu, Hazara University Mansehra
  2. Dr. Muhammad Rehman
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Hazara University Mansehra
  3. Dr. Mutahir Shah
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Hazara University Mansehra
Abstract: Inshaieya is a prominent form of prose writing in Urdu literature. A number of writers have proved their knowledge and skill in the field of essay writing. Jamil Aazar is one of such writers. Not only did he write great essays but also critically appreciated several famous Inshaeyas. Several other critics have acknowledged Jamil Aazar’s critical acumen by declaring him as the father of criticism on Inshaeya,s writing, especially when he is an established critic whose major contribution is to elevate this form to new heights. The present article is an effort to highlight his contribution to Urdu literature in this connection.
Keyswords: Prelude, Animal Passions, Philosophical Mind
Pages: 173-181
Article: 13 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)13
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)13
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Scientific and Intellectual Aspects of Urdu Ghazal in the State of Jammu and Kashmir: A Historical Analysis of the Poetry of "Bashir Sarafi"

Authors:
  1. Dr. Yousf Mir
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
  2. Amar Jahangir
    PhD Scholar, Department of History and Pakistan Studies, International Islamic University, Islamabad
  3. Dr. Anbrin Khawaja
    Assistant Professor, Institute of Kashmir Studies, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract: In this research paper, the researcher takes an adventure to shed light on Ghazal through an analysis, comprehensively; keeping in view Basher Sarfi's Ghazal. It is a living, dynamic of Urdu poetry. In Urdu poetry, Ghazal has the highest, most significant and richest capital. The main reason for the success and popularity of Ghazal is that it has been able to keep up with the emotions and feelings of the people of Urdu in every era. Basher Sarfi’s poetry depicts sorrow, grief, migration, fear, travel, sadness, death, despair, grievances, and instability of the world, self-talk, patriotism, modern conditions, oppressive views of the beloved, claims, and local, national and international references. References to Kashmir as well as landscapes, patriotism, remembrance of victory, literary attitudes after the partition of Kashmir, resistance elements, beauty and love, love, sincerity, truth, religion, loneliness, life, resistance, optimism , satire and humorous elements, modern sensibility, class consciousness, perception of social issues, perception of civic and social attitudes, political consciousness, ideal of world peace, reference to global attitudes and events, local culture, cultural elements and many other symbols and references. A variety of topics and intellectual and artistic trends appear to emerge. Two methods are used to determine the position and status, one is the thematic study of creation and the other is the technical study. Thematic studies look at whether the creator has incorporated new themes into his work, that is, thematic diversity. These are the basic things that are seen and tested in the thematic study.
Keyswords: Ghazal, Thematic, Diversity, Trends, Patriotism, Consciousness, Perception
Pages: 182-194
Article: 14 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)14
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)14
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A Study of Baloch Woman’s Character in Urdu Travelogues

Authors:
  1. Nazia Kanwal
    Scholor Phd Urdu, NUML Islamabad
  2. Dr. Saima Nazir
    Assistant Professor Urdu, NUML Islamabad
Abstract: Balochistan is a remote and underdeveloped region replete with the wealth old culture and civilization. Our Urdu travelogue writers have splendidly explored this treasure in their writings. These writers have adroitly portrayed such an excellent depictionof this distant region which rightly demonstrates the overall picture of Balochistan in terms of its old culture, civilization and life style. Urdu travelogues have brought every nook and corner of Balochistan’s civilization and culture at forefront. The topic of Baloch woman is in itself an embodiment of oppressed woman. This poor daughter of Eve not only carries the burden of life but bears the brunt of associated burdens and reflects the pitiable and suppressed being. Our writers have truly brought at surface the injustices meted out to Baloch woman and provided the readers of literature invaluable stock of information regarding miserable condition of Baloch woman. These writers have given voice to the oppressd woman and provided her place in their writings which helped her message to reach out to the readers. This article has attempted to unmask the unique culture of Baluchistan. The article under study will deeply analyze the miseries of Baloch woman. Travelogue is primary genre of urdu literature which consists of observable incidents. A travelogue writer notes down his/her first hand and empirical observation which testifies the worth of this genre.
Keyswords: Urdu travelogue, oppressed woman of Balochistan, Ancient civilization and culture, mirror/reflection of Balochistan Stranger in own homeland, Kallat’s travelogue
Pages: 195-202
Article: 15 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)15
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)15
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Distinctive Phraseology in the Poetry of Faiz

Authors:
  1. Muhammad Azhar Iqbal
    Scholar PhD Urdu, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad. Assistant professor, Department of Urdu, Govt Islamia Colle
  2. Dr. Noreena Tehreem Babar
    Associate Professor, Department of Urdu, AIOU, Islamabad
Abstract: Faiz Ahmad Faiz is an eminent poet of the Twentieth Century. His poetry is known to be a beautiful fusion of romance, revolution and progressive philosophy. But the study of artistic aspect in his poetry is also very significant. The artistic evolution in his poetry seems to be at a greater level than that in the poetry of his contemporaries. The fame of Faiz Ahmad Faiz also rests in his distinctive style of writing. The eminent features of his poetic style include his polite manner, melody, musicality and lyrical quality. The apt use of words and phrases adds to the spontaneous overflow of powerful feeling and melodious quality of his poetry. Thus, a large variety of classical as well as modern phraseology is found in his poetic style and this feature provides a great artistic worth to the poetry of Faiz Ahmad Faiz.
Keyswords: Phraseology, Romance, Revolution, Progressive, Artistic, Poetic Style, Polite manner, Melody, Musicality, Lyrical equality, Overflow
Pages: 203-220
Article: 16 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)16
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)16
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Ideology in the critique of Fateh Muhammad Malik

Authors:
  1. Imran Azam Raza
    Scholar Ph.D Urdu, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad
  2. Dr. Tabassum Kashmiri
    Assistant Director Police, Regional Police Office, Gujranwala Cantt, Lahore
Abstract: Professor Fateh Muhammad Malik (Born 18 June 1936) a renowned Pakistani Scholar of Urdu Language and literature. His literary contributions towards various branches of Urdu Literature have been acknowledged by prominent critics and literary circles. His attachment with the manifesto of Islamic theories, Pakistan and Muslim Nation Urdu writer, declare him a noted critic and scholar of Urdu literature. He developed his own peculiar style of his literary writings, which distinguished him from his contemporaries. In his literary works, he deals with the present-day subjects of his times. Malik passionately wrote and spoke about the Urdu language, the relevance of Pakistan’s ideology and Iqbal’s rediscovery of Islam for our times. They serve as his reference marks for judging all literature, and Malik is considered an authority on these subjects. A recipient of the highest civilian award, the Sitara-e-Imtiaz, he has written works that have appeared in prominent literary magazines and he has authored famous books such as Ta’asubaat(Prejudices), Tehseen-o-Tardeed (Praise and Denial) and Andaaz-e-Nazar (Perspective). He served for a long time at different renowned educational institutions and deliverd lectures in different countries. Most importantly, he stands out from his peers for championing the notion that all literature has to subscribe to an ideology — a moot point for many who oppose his views on literature. His style of critique is rather distinctive: he quotes long passages from the literary piece in question to help the readers understand the work and the writer rather than promoting himself. His foremost consideration while judging a work is whether it contributes to society. A self-confessed progressive, Malik’s staunch views on Pakistan’s ideology may hint otherwise: he asserts that Pakistan’s existence and progress hinges on Iqbal’s thought, which serves as a protective wall for the Subcontinent’s Muslims. However his towering legacy in the field of literary criticism is undeniably his biggest contribution.
Keyswords: Manifesto, Islamic theories, Nation, Islam, Critic, Sitara-e-imtiaz, Prejudices, Iqbal, Peers, Idealogy, Progressive, legacy
Pages: 221-232
Article: 17 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)17
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)17
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Fatalism, Free will and Divine’s Decree in Masnawi-e- Maulana Rumi and Works (Kulyaat) of Allama Iqbal

Authors:
  1. Muzaffar Ali Kashmeeri
    Ph.D (Iqbaliat) Research Scholar, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad
  2. Dr. Syed Muhammad Jawad Hamdani
    Ph.D (Iqbaliat) Ex HOD, Persian Department, International Islamic University, Islamabad
Abstract: The question of free will and fatalism, like all great minds, have been a life-long preoccupation of great Persian poet Maulana Jalaldudin Rumi and Allama Muhammad Iqbal, poet philosopher. Being an Ash’arite Maulana, by most of the commentators, has been categorised as Fatalist and by few as Amr Bain ul Amreenia, the middle path. Allama Muhammad Iqbal as being a vocal advocate of free will, appears to differ from his spritual master Maulana Rumi. Hence there is a conflict between these two towering figures of Eastern literature. This Article investigates this conflict in detail and concludes that most of commentators of Maulana Rumi have missed out some important dimensions. One of those missing dimensions is nature of poetic and mystical experiences, which vary from time to time and the poetry which is the outcome of such a varying experience is bound to be conflicting.
Keyswords: Fatalism, Maulana Jalaldudin Rumi, Allama Muhammad Iqbal, Poetic and Mystic experience, Freewill and determinism
Pages: 233-250
Article: 18 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)18
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)18
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The Culture of Lahore in Urdu Novel: A Research Study

Authors:
  1. Dr. Amna Batool
    Head Deptt of Urdu, Govt Post Graduate College for Women, Sargodha
  2. Dr. Saira Irshad
    Lecturer, Deptt of Urdu, Govt Sadiq College Women University Bahawalpur
  3. Syed Azwar Abbas
    Lecturer, Deptt of Urdu, Hazara University, Mansehra
Abstract: There is major difference of culture in urban and rural life of Punjab During analysis, it reveals that this difference in culture exists in past and presenet. Most of the novel writers focused only Lahore in their novels and other urban areas were symoblized through the major city. Historical importance of gates, bazars buildings, roads and gardens of Lahore city apparently seen in biage analysis of urban culture.
Keyswords: culture, Punjab, Lahore, Novel, Data Darbar, Shalimar Bagh
Pages: 251-263
Article: 19 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)19
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)19
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Ecological Paradigm of Translation: Basic Concepts

Authors:
  1. Muhammad Irfan Haider
    Mphil Urdu Scholar, Oriental College, Punjab University Lahore
  2. Syed Azwar Abbas
    Lecturer of Urdu, Department of Urdu, Hazara University Mansehra
  3. Hassan Mehmood
    Mphil Urdu Scholar, Oriental College, Punjab University Lahore
Abstract: Ecocriticism is an emerging discourse in literary studies. Ecocriticism, the study of human-nature relations in literature, film and other cultural expressions, has rapidly become established in the field of literary theory. Eco translatology is nature centered translation study and self-contained translation theory system, under the guidance of eco-holism. The recent cultural term in translation studies introduced a marked shift from strictly linguistic to cultural approches to translation. Eco translatology answers the fundamental questions in translation studies: what is translation? Who translates? How to translate and why to translate? In this article will be engaged all these prior mentioned questions and find their answers in the vision of eco criticism.
Keyswords: Ecocriticism, Ecology, climate change, culture, Translation
Pages: 264-274
Article: 20 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)20
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)20
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The Role of Shafqat Tanveer Mirza in the Development of Punjabi

Authors:
  1. Muhammad Jamil
    Ph.D, Scholar, Department of Pakistani Languages & Literature, Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad
  2. Dr. Arshad Mahmood Naushad
    Associate professor, Department of Urdu, Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad
Abstract: This article explores the efforts of Shafqat Tanveer Mirza for the development of the Punjabi language and literature in Pakistan. In the case of the Punjabi language, Shafqat Tanveer Mirza is a versatile figure and he has performed valuable prominent services in the field of Punjabi language. After the emergence of Pakistan and especially in the decade of 1960s, Shafqat Tanveer Mirza had organized Punjabi literary organizations and movements in Pakistani Punjab on the most urgent levels.The writers and Intellectuals of these organizations have contested for the appropriate rights of Punjabi language through their practice and pen and as a result of this struggle, the government had allowed the starting of MA in the Punjabi language in Punjab University and Shah Hussain college in the 1970s. The organizations and movements established by Shafqat Tanveer Mirza are still pursuing the struggle of the Punjabi language for its proper rights and status.
Keyswords: Shafqat Tanveer Mirza, Struggle, Punjabi Language, Struggle
Pages: 275-285
Article: 21 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)21
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)21
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Versified Translations of Persian into Urdu by Peer Bakhsh Peer

Authors:
  1. Rashid ul Haq
    Ph.D Urdu Research Scholar, University of Karachi
  2. Dr. Sadaf Fatima
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, University of Karachi
Abstract: There is a tradition of versified translations of Urdu literature. This can be particularly seen in both poetic and prose works of Sheikh Saadi. These literary works have been translated a number of times but no serious effort has been done so far to make a versified translation. Gobind Parshad has done translation of Bostaan Saadi with the title of 'Bostaan Mutarjim'. Peer Bakhsh Peer believes that he has not only done versified translations of Kareema, Bostaan and Gulistaan but also stories 'Mukhtalifa' (Gulzaar e Dabistaan). In this article, versified translation of Peer Bakhsh Peer has been treated as a subject matter. There is no doubt at the fact that versified translations of Peer Bakhsh Peer will be considered an important milestone. Peer Bakhsh Peer has not only done versified translations of Sheikh Saadi but he has also done translation of first edition of 'Masnavi' of Maulana Rome. All of these translations are an important addition to versified Urdu literature.
Keyswords: Peer Bakhsh Peer, Versified Translations, Bostaan Saadi Kareema, Gulistaan, Sheikh Saadi, Manzuun-kalaam, Dera Ghazi Khan, Rasoolpur
Pages: 286-303
Article: 22 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)22
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)22
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The role of “Fikr-o-Nazar” Magazine in the Tradition of Iqbalism

Authors:
  1. Dr. Tariq Javed
    Department of Iqbal Studies, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad
  2. Shahzana Ashfaq
    Visiting Lecturer, Fatima Jinah University, Rawalpindi
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to highlight the services of the magazine "Fikr-o-Nazar" with reference to Iqbal. This research shows how magazines and journals have done a great job in popularizing Iqbal's thought. In this regard, old files of magazines and journals have been looked at. Covering all the articles in the magazine "Fikr-o-Nazar", it has been examined what kind of articles were being written in which era. It has also been examined how many articles were written in this magazine and in the beginning period and what is the current situation in the present period? Allama Iqbla’s dream came true in the form of Pakistan. One important purpose, after Pakistan came in to being, was to illuminate Islamic creed with true Islamic discretion. “Islamic Research Institute” was brought in to enistence to attain this objective. This article is an endeavor to highlight services of magazine “Fikr-o-Nazar” promote Iqbal thought. Research has concluded that magazines and journals have played an important role in popularizing Iqbal's thought. In its first fifteen years, Fakro Nazar magazine has made a name for itself in the field of Iqbalism by publishing various articles on Iqbal. The study also found that the magazine “Fakr-o-eNazar”, which used to have a large number of excellent articles, has now seen a decline in both quality and quantity. During this study mix methodology approach is used i.e descriptive analytical and historical. This study find out the result that Magazines and Jourrnals have done a great job popularizing Iqbal’s thought.
Keyswords: Allama Iqbal, Magazine, Fikr-o-Nazar, Tradion, Iqbalism, Journals
Pages: 304-316
Article: 23 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)23
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)23
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A Short Study of Translations into Sindhi Literature

Authors:
  1. Dr. Zulfiqar Ali Jalbani
    Assistant Professor, Govt Boys Degree College, Mehrab Pur, District Noshehra Feroz Sindh
Abstract: From the study of the history of Sindhi literature, it is revealed that the growth of Sindhi literature has increased with the translation and development of Sindhi literature. A study of Sindhi literature shows that the first translation in Sindhi language is in the year 270 AH, the first translation of the Holy Quran into Sindhi.Famous remarks in Buzrurg ibn Shariyar's "Ajaib al Hind (ed. Paris 1878;p.2) according to which th prince of Ra had asked the ruler of Mansura, to send someone to instruct him in Islamic subjects ;and a pious and learned man went and started translating the Quraan ,beginning with Surah Yasin. Today it is a matter of debate, where does it translate the Quran in the Sindhi language and in what place and in what form? There is no such proven principle that can be used to build a foundation! The reason why translations are done is because when our scholarly writers, poets, researchers, and critics are influenced and impressed by a book of another language, they should have discussions with their thought-provoking scholars about that book. Each book has its own importance and intellectual distinguishing features; on the one hand the author has his own style and on the other hand each language has its own rules and principles. The period in which the book is posted has its own set of requirements that affects the society as a whole. This whole book challenges an interpreter to do proper justice to the book.
Keyswords: Translating, Debate, Sindhi Language, Poets, Researchers, Intellectual, Priniples, Society
Pages: 317-332
Article: 24 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)24
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)24
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Tragedy of souls imprisoned in wrong bodies (The Ministry of Utmost Happiness)

Authors:
  1. Muhammad Khizar Abbas
    Visiting Facility, Dept. of Urdu, G.C University, Lahore
  2. Dr. Syeda Misbah Rizvi
    Assistant Professor, Dept. of Urdu, G.C University, Lahore
  3. Dr. Safeer Haider
    Assistant Professor, Dept. of Urdu, G.C University, Lahore
Abstract: “The Ministry of utmost happiness” by Arundhati Roy is the story of class Conflict, domination of power and oppression in Indian society. The novel depicts society with the help of real events, tragedies, and fictional characters. The narrative of the novel is simple and realistic. Although the story and characters are from specific society, but they reflect the oppressed people of whole world.
Keyswords: Arundhati Roy, Tragedy, Kingdom, novel, Indian society, power, Utmost Happiness, Narendra Modi
Pages: 333-341
Article: 25 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)25
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)25
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Glossary of Hobson Jobson: Critical and Analytical Study

Authors:
  1. Maria Termezi
    Teaching Research Associate, Urdu department, international Islamic university, Islamabad
Abstract: Hobson-Jobsonis a glossary of Anglo-Indian words and terms which is compiled in the late nineteenth century. It was written by Henry Yule and Arthur Cook Burnell and first published in 1886. Burnell died before the work was finished, and most of it was by Yule, who, however, fully acknowledged Burnell's contributions. . Although glossaries and dictionaries are the subject of linguistic but this glossary text has great relevancy to the socio political situation of nineteenth century.it is an etymological glossary of words from Indian languages which came into use during the British rule of India. It documents the words and phrases that entered and absorbed in European languages from Indian languages۔it included illustrative quotations that were drawn from a wide range of travel texts, histories, memoirs, novels and others. It does not only records the vocabulary but the culture of the British India. It encompasses aspects of the history, trade, peoples, and geography. This glossary has never been superseded. This article gives its introduction, critically discus incentive and significance of the text.
Keyswords: Anglo-Indian, Nineteenth centuray India, Etymology, Indian languages
Pages: 342-353
Article: 26 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)26
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)26
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Lack of Culture and Modern Technology in Pakistani Novels

Authors:
  1. Zeenat Aman
    Phd Urdu Scholar, NUML, Islamabad
  2. Dr. Bushra Parveen
    Assistant Professor, Urdu Department, NUML, Islamabad
Abstract: This article presents the deficiencies and challenges in Pakistani culture and also highlights the problems of new writers with this regard. This article also point out the issues which are being faced by Pakistani culture and civilization. To be specific literature in Subcontinent is source of creative expression about cultural values. There is also change in pattern of novel during 21st century because of scientific inventions. Over the years, the Information technology and internet services have created new style of telling story. Literature, civilization and culture are interlinked to each other. Literature of every era is the best mirror of social life of its era. In order to make writing successful the writer reflects the society by understanding the meaning of civilization, history and culture.
Keyswords: Culture, Civilization, Internet, Mobile, Laptop, Latest Technology, Internet, Literature
Pages: 354-365
Article: 27 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)27
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)27
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Myths of important Goddesses of Hindu Religion in the novels of Qurat-ul-Ain Haider

Authors:
  1. Shabbir Ahmad
    PhD Urdu Scholar, Hazara University, Mansehra
  2. Rabia Bibi
    PhD Urdu Scholar, Hazara University, Mansehra
  3. Dr. Muhammad Altaf Yousof zai
    Associate Professor, Urdu Department, Hazara University, Mansehra
Abstract: In Hindu religion the concept of Tridevi (Three Goddess) is used to describe the three famous female deities. These are Saraswati (wife of Brahma), Lakshmi (wife of Vishnu) and Parvati (wife of Shiva).In major religions of the world female is considered as sacred figure who holds highest place in terms of worship. Hinduism is the most complex religion and faith which is followed by millions of people in the world .Qurat ul Ain Haider in her Novels explains the spiritual aspect of the female goddesses of the Hindu religion. Saraswati is famous for learning, arts and music. She is the wife of God Brahma and famous for power of knowledge and pure thought. Whereas Lakshmi is presented as goddess of good fortune and wealth. She is spouse of God Vishnu. She is more powerful and in mythological stories she is portrayed either standing or sitting in a lotus flower. For Hindus, the lotus flower is considered as symbol of spirituality, self-understanding and success. While Parvati is the wife of Shiva and depicted as continuity of life. She is very popular because she is the mother of Ganesha, who is also considered as the god of good fortune and intelligence. As per Hindu mythological stories he is the commander of the divine army of male deities. There are many other famous female goddess in Hindu religion but above mentioned three females are considered as highest in rank. The main reason behind this importance refers to the power/Shakti which these three female goddess possess.
Keyswords: Tridevi, Saraswati, Brahma, Lakshmi, Vishnu, Shiva, Parvati, Lotus flower, Spirituality, Intelligence, Shakti
Pages: 366-376
Article: 28 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)28
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)28
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Ideological Affiliation in Women Novelists

Authors:
  1. Dr. Rani Sabir Ali
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Govt. Post Graduate College for Women, Sahiwal
  2. Dr. Tahir Abbas
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, The Islamia University, Bahawalpur
  3. Dr. Wasif Iqbal Siddiqui
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, The Islamia University, Bahawalpur
Abstract: The Female Novelists have, from the Advent of Pakistan, Shown the idealogical Commitment in their novels. Their novels not only exibit life seperatly but they also try to find out and solve the reasons of the international conflicts and crices. Its stonishing to read the novel of Khadija Mastoor, Altaf Fatima, Razia Sajjad Zaheer, Bano Qudisia & Khalida Hussain that they have such a deep understanding of the public problem and they also give their own opinions which are for the betterment of the circumstances. These novelists. Rebel against the fudel culture and polictical atrocities. They raise the questions that when this present system will be mended? In their novel they make it clear by giving the examples from international politics that how the other nations crushed down the old system with the help of strong movements.
Keyswords: Women novelist, Urdu Literature, Ideologies, Commitment
Pages: 377-387
Article: 29 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)29
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)29
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Descriptive study of Prosody

Authors:
  1. Dr. Wasif Iqbal Siddiqui
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, The Islamia University, Bahawalpur
  2. Dr. Rani Sabir Ali
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Department of Urdu, Govt. Post Graduate College for Women, Sahiwal
  3. Dr. Tahir Abbas
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, The Islamia University, Bahawalpur
Abstract: Prosody or "Orooz" is the knowledge for poetry in Urdu, Persian and Arabic. It is like grammar and essential for the subject of poetry. Some people have not read this grammar but still speak the correct and fluently the poetic verses, so they do not make any grammar mistakes. Compared to them, there are some people who have read grammar but cannot recite poetry fluently. There is no such thing as knowledge which every non-poet can become a poet or without which no one can write poetry. Apart of this all, poetry and Orooz both are inseparable. This article is a descriptive study of prosody.
Keyswords: Prosody, Orooz, Urdu Poetry, Persian Poetry, Arabic Poetry
Pages: 388-398
Article: 30 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)30
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)30
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Gustatory Imagery in the Poetry of Zia Jalandhri

Authors:
  1. Munir ul Islam
    Ph.D (Urdu) Research Scholar, Hazara University Mansehra
  2. Dr. Nazar Abid
    Head of Department (Urdu), Hazara University Mansehra
Abstract: Gustatory Imagery in the Poetry of Zia Jalandhri Zia Jalandhri is one of the famous poets of the modern period of Urdu poetry. Besides other poetic features, his poetry contains excellent example of imagery. Different forms of imagery can be seen in his poetry and he has successfully showed his artistic skills with regard to imagery. One can find various types of imagery in his verses i.e. visual imagery, auditory imagery, olfactory imagery, tactile imagery. His many poems and verses contain good examples of gustatory imagery, Imagery that engages the sense of taste. This aspect of his imagery has been analyzed and discussed in this research article.
Keyswords: Famous, Modern, Urdu Poetry, Poetic, Imagery, Artistic
Pages: 398-406
Article: 31 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)31
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)31
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Discovering Truth in the Context of “Meetha Sach“

Authors:
  1. Dr. Bismina Siraj
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University Peshawar
  2. Dr. Robina Rashid
    Lecturer, Department of Urdu, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University Peshawar
  3. Nabila Shaheen
    M.Phil. Scholar, Department of Urdu, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University Peshawar
Abstract: Farheen Choudhry possesses an astute, elegant and graceful personality. She is blessed with a broad array of capabilities. She has proven her mettle in the fields of novel writing, poetry, drama, anchoring and production. She believes in realistic writing and is strictly against romantic, unrealistic and supernatural fantasies. She believes such purposeless writing only disturbs the immature minds. She is the flag bearer of honesty and truthfulness. She has faced numerous challenges and oppositions due to her bold and reality oriented nature. She has portrayed herself as a wise poetess. Her poetic wisdom reflects humanity’s outcry, life’s undulations and societal torture. She not only highlights the social issues of recent times in her novels but also pinpoints them in her columns for their effective mitigation as she considers societal problems as her own. According to her “Only that literature will survive the test of times which represents the oppressed and deprived community of society”.
Keyswords: Elegant, Reality, Social issues, Societal, Torture, Capabilities
Pages: 407-414
Article: 32 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)32
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)32
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Two Posmodern Women: A Feminist Study

Authors:
  1. Dr. Naeema Bibi
    Teaching and Research, Department of Urdu, International Islamic University Islamabad
  2. Sara Majeed
    Lecturer, Department of Urdu, The Women University Multan
  3. Dr. Muhammad Kamran Shahzad
    Lecturer, Punjab College Sargodha
Abstract: Postmodernism is an important term or literary attitude of contemporary times. Postmodernism gave birth to feminism. In this articlefeminist studies have been done on the characters of two Urdu novels, Sania of "zilato ka Aseer" and Naheed Naz of "Nala e Shab Gir".
Keyswords: Postmodernism, feminism, sania, naheed naz, feminine character, novel
Pages: 415-424
Article: 33 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)33
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)33
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The Mentioned Books in Farhang Ashura

Authors:
  1. Arif Hussain Arif
    Research Scholar, Ph.D Urdu,
  2. Dr. Nazar Abid
    Head Department of Urdu, Hazara University, Mansehra
Abstract: Study of terms and study of historical religious concepts is the basics of the Language. “Farhang e Ashoora ’’ is the study of terms about Ashoora Movement by Hazrat Imam Hussain and Yaum e Ashoor. Jawwad Mohaddasi writes about the names of cites which are the related to Ashoora movement and also he studied about terms, names of friends and relitives of Hazrat Imam Hussain. In this study he put the names of those books of history whose define the Ashoora movment and the part of Hazrat Imam Hussain in Ashoora and Islamic religious needs. Study Of those books is very important for a religious researcher and reader.
Keyswords: Study of terms about Ashoora, Ashorra movement, books related to Ashoora, Hazrat Imam Hussain, Maqtal, War of Islam
Pages: 425-434
Article: 34 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)34
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)34
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The Philistine's resistance: in the perspective of Urdu Novel

Authors:
  1. Dr. Muhammad Kamran Shahzad
    Lecturer, Punjab College Sargodha
Abstract: The land of Palestine is one of the most ancient regions of the world which was occupied by Israeli forces in 1967. Due to Israeli barbarism the Palestine issue effected every sensitive person and the literary society also could not remain uneffected by it. Due to this reason, the Palestine issue was made primary or secondary theme in several genres of literature. Pakistani novelists have also portrayed the resistive trends of Palestinian Muslims against Israeli barbarism in their novels. In this context Mustansar Hussain Tarar's "Rakh", Salma Awan's "Lahu ka Raang Phalestine" and Hassan Manzar's "Haabs" have been included in this article.
Keyswords: Palestine issue, Israeli barbarism, Urdu Novel, Resistance
Pages: 435-445
Article: 35 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)35
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)35
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Research and Analytical Study of “A Cup of Tea“

Authors:
  1. Dr. Fayyaz Hussain
    Assistant Professor, Department of Punjabi, GC University Faisalabad
  2. Dr. Iftikhar Ahmad Sulehri
    Assistant Professor, Department of Punjabi, GC University Lahore
Abstract: Dr. Mohsin Mghyana is a well known poet, story writer, light essay writer, articles writer and literati of Urdu and Punjabi. He is a surgeon and now a days he is running Jinnah hospital in Jhang, and with this he is writing different recipients in Urdu and Punjabi.More then a dozen books of him has been published.In this article we took view of the article "Ek Piyali Chaye" which clearly shows that he is a successful light essay writer.
Keyswords: A Cup of Tea, Poet, Story Writer, Urdu, Punjabi
Pages: 447-453
Article: 36 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)36
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)36
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The Tradition of Historiography of Mashaikh Sial Sharif and his Caliphs

Authors:
  1. Muhammad Naeem Ghumman
    lecturer, Urdu, govt shalimar college Lahore
  2. Dr. Syed Safer Hadir
    Department Urdu, Govt College University Lahore
Abstract: The Real colour of the practical legacy of saints of chistst is seen in the shrines of Siyal Shareef and its branch -shrines. The mentors of their caliphs have extra ordinary taste / sense of knowledge, literature and poetry. The mentors of siyal shareef and their khaliphs have always promoted the traditions of knowledge and literature. Besides having writing skills of arabic , persian and urdu poetry they have also kept many classical traditions alive of which the ability of a history -telling is the best.The Ability of history -telling is seen at its peak among the mentors of siyal Sharif and their khaliphs. They Have written pieces of history in Urdu, Arabic and Persian. In present era the mentors of Siyal Sharif and their khaliphs are writing stenzas of history which are the staunch proof of their eloquence and love for classical traditions.
Keyswords: Legacy, Saints, Chistst, Shrines, Siyal, Khalips
Pages: 454-465
Article: 37 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)37
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)37
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Iqbal's Letters to Women - A Critical Study of His Mind and Art

Authors:
  1. Dr. Humaira Shahbaz
    Senior Instructor, Persian Department, NUML, Islamabad, Pakistan
  2. Muhammad Azam
    Scholar Ph.D, Department of Urdu, NUML, Islamabad, Pakistan
Abstract: Letters have been a form of writing since the beginning. It is called the art of literature. In letters, the letter writer sends his thoughts and feelings in writing to the addressee. Letters have been written in various forms and styles since the beginning of prose. Letters of various historical figures have gained recognition in the world of literature. Dr. Muhammad Iqbal has an important place in poetry as well as prose writing and most of his prose works are letters. Allama Iqbal's letters are in Urdu, English, Persian, Arabic and German. Iqbal wrote these letters not only to his loved ones but also to the contemporary scholars, literary and political figures. Numerous collections of Iqbal's letters have been published which offer the possibility of new research topics in Iqbal Studies, including dozens of letters addressed to women. This article discusses the letters that Allama Iqbal wrote to several women and for this study Muzaffar Hussain Burni's Collection of letters of Iqbal is taken into consideration. This study uses a critical and descriptive approach to the text being reviewed. In addition to Iqbal's style of writing, the article discusses intellectual topics discussed in letters. By reading these letters one can understand the consciousness of Iqbal's personality and art.
Keyswords: Iqbal, Women, Letters, Correspondence, Society, Intellectual Evolution, Art Writing, Stylistics
Pages: 466-479
Article: 38 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)38
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)38
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Urdu Literature and Globalization

Authors:
  1. Fozia Anar
    Ph.D Scholar, Department of Urdu, NUML, Islamabad
  2. Dr. Bushra Parveen
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, NUML, Islamabad
Abstract: The term globalization is itself obvious. It is viewed as one of the most compelling peculiarity in the new time, it is consider a comparatively new term but it has origin in antiquity. Being worldwide mean an adjustment of one perspective on seeing life, values, culture and language. This perspective has been captured brilliantly by authors in the worldwide. This article focuses on the influence of globalization on Urdu literature. It has been tried to present the influence of globalization on Urdu in light of examples of 21st century Urdu writers in the radiance of idea of globalization and its different impact.
Keyswords: Globalization, Urdu literature, Global literature
Pages: 480-487
Article: 39 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)39
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)39
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Islamic Elements in Short Stories of Intizar Hussain

Authors:
  1. Obaid Ullah
    Research Scholar, Ph.D Department of Urdu, Urdu University, Karachi
  2. Dr. Sumaira Bashir
    In-Charge, Department of Urdu, Urdu University, Karachi
Abstract: This article aims the exploring contents of Islamic thought in short stories of famous short story writer Intizar Hussain. Literature writer are the sensitive people of the society. They feel with heart and then describe in his short stories. We live in Islamic society so we follows Islamic rules. Due to humenbeing nature there are many conflict in our life. Intizar Hussain stories reflect on these conflicts. Islamic elements influence in our daily life and special events of the Islamic culture. Intizar Hussain sketch of our this Islamic life in his short stories with thought full meanings. Some time Intizar Hussain take examples from old age in allogery style as a symbolic. These symbolic examples also describe in our Islamic education for the learning of lesson like Quran and had.
Keyswords: Intizar Hussain, Short story, Islamic elements, Islamic culture, symbolic
Pages: 488-499
Article: 40 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)40
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)40
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Iftikhar Arif’s Poetic Universe

Authors:
  1. Syed Hussnain Abbas
    Research Scholar, Ph.D Department of Urdu, Federal Urdu University, Islamabad
  2. Dr. Sadia Tahir
    Assistant Professor, Federal Urdu University, Islamabad
Abstract: This article is about the intellectual tendencies of the famous poet Iftikhar Arif and the poetic themes that make up his poetic universe. Iftikhar Arif. For the last 57 years, he has been shining like a shining star on the literary horizon with full faith in his unique style and poetic ideas. Symbols, metaphors, and techniques, such as house, emigration, exile, and Karbala. Be it ghazal or poem, they know the art of drawing poetic aesthetics as well as the theory of life in both genres.
Keyswords: Iftikhar Arif, Intellectual tendencies, Poetic themes, Metaphors, House emigration, Exile, Karbala
Pages: 500-512
Article: 41 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)41
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)41
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Analytical study of Neelam Ahmed Bashir’s short story collection “Wehshat Hi Sahi“

Authors:
  1. Nimra Hanif
    Research Scholar Ph.D, GC University, Lahore
  2. Dr. Shaista Hameed Khan
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, GC University, Lahore
  3. Rao Muhammad Umar
    Visiting Faculty, Department of Urdu, GC University, Lahore
Abstract: Neelam Ahmed Bashir is a prominent and versatile modern Urdu fiction Writer. She wrote and worked in different genres of literature. Her five short story books have been published. Her short stories portray realistic view of life. She is a keen observer of Life and society. This short story book, “Wehshat Hi Sahi" is fifth in row and published in 2013. Feminism, Class differences and discriminations and miseries of women in male dominant society are the main themes and motifs of short stories of this book. She also discussed the hardships and psychological problems of the people living in abroad. These Short stories are unique in diction and craft.
Keyswords: 513-526
Pages: Neelam Ahmed Bashir, Short Stories, Fiction, Reali
Article: 42 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)42
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)42
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Reportage "Main Ne Kashmir Jalta Dekha" An Analytical Study

Authors:
  1. Bashir Ahmad
    PhD Urdu Scholar, Hazara University, Mansehra
  2. Dr. Muhammad Altaf Yousofzai
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Hazara University, Mansehra
  3. Shabbir Ahmad
    PhD Urdu Scholar, Hazara University, Mansehra
Abstract: The term “Reportage” is basically the art of capturing the real picture of an event observed by a writer with naked eyes. It is the clear picture and extensive report which covers each and every aspect of the event. This term is mostly referred to media reports which show the sketch of news to tell a complete story to the general public. The same concept is being used in Urdu literature and now it became an art of writing eye witnessed stories, personal experiences, observations and perceptions. In past, we can find very little literary reportage in Urdu but nowadays this has become a proper genre and style of writing and many prominent writers have written masterpieces. The person who writes reportage is actually the eye witness of that particular event. It seems a very easy piece of writing but actually it is very difficult job to explain and record every aspect of the event. The piece of such reporting is more polished and longer than articles which is being published in the newspapers. Syed Saleem Gardezi is a prominent Urdu non-fiction writer belongs to the beautiful valley of Azad Jammu & Kashmir written reportage “Main Ne Kashmir Jalta Dekha” on Kashmir conflict. In 1991 this book was honored with Presidential award. The Kashmir conflict is basically a territorial in nature and since Indo-Pak partition in 1947 India started violation of human rights in the region which is still on ground. The world is well aware of crimes committed by the Indian army .It’s been75 years that People of Kashmir struggling for their very existence and right to self-determination. Gardezi in his book tried to explain the real situation and facts regarding the atrocities of Indian army in the valley which is called heaven by poets.
Keyswords: Kashmir, Soldier, Serinagar, terrorist, camps, Islamic fighters, BSF (Border Security Forces), atrocities, Human Rights violations, historical places, Muslim, Border Conflicts
Pages: 527-534
Article: 43 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)43
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)43
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A Brief Review of Research on the Sindhi Language

Authors:
  1. Dr. Zulfiqar Ali Jalbani
    Assistant Professor, Govt (Boys) Degree College, Mehrabpur, District Naushehro Feroze Sindh
Abstract: The information obtained from the historical study of various Sindhi literatures which has been repeatedly presented in our Sindhi language. Sindhi language researchers have not made any personal and final opinion regarding history. To date, only a few books and articles have been written. Researchers working on Sindhi language standards including Kako Beheromal Meharchand Advani, Mirza Qaleech Baig, Dr. Umar Bin Muhammad Daudpota, Dr. Abdul Jabbar Junejo, Dr. Murli Dhar Jaitley, Prof. Ali Nawaz Jatoi, Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Khan Baloch, Siraj ul Haq Memon and Dr. Muhammad Qasim Bughio` of all, Dr. Fahmida Hussain's research is the most unique. Because she has knowledge of computational linguistics on the Indus Script computer monitoring list, she has been translating research articles of Finland, Russia, USA and Indian languages into Sindhi which is a comprehensive work on the history of Sindhi language.
Keyswords: Society, Culture, Communication, Ideas, Language, Moral Principles, Findings, Express
Pages: 535-551
Article: 44 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)44
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)44
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Iqbal's concept of Khudi (The Self) and the Perfect Man

Authors:
  1. Dr. Mahmood ul Hassan
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, NUML, Islamabad
  2. Sajida Sultana
    PhD Urdu Scholar, Department of Urdu, NUML, Islamabad
Abstract: Allama Iqbal is considered as the great Poet, thinker, Philosopher and Politician. The topic of Iqbal's Philosophy is mankind and Purpose of his Philosophy is development of the Perfect human being. He yearns that human beings should culminate to the zenith of self esteem after covering milestones of obedience, self control and divine representation. The ongoing dissertation endeavours to know about its effect on pious man.
Keyswords: Iqbal, Darwaish Sift, Chashm e baseerat, inhemak, israr e khudi,Ramooz e bekhudi
Pages: 552-563
Article: 45 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)45
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)45
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Social and Societal Study of Fayyaz Aziz's Fictions

Authors:
  1. Dr. Badshah Munir Bukhari
    Department of Urdu, University of Peshawar
  2. Naveed Ali Khan
    Ph.D Scholar, Department of Urdu, University of Peshawar
Abstract: Fiction writer Fayyaz Aziz has written stories with his diligence and hard work to reflect the culture of his society. Two collections of his fiction have been published. His stories are being published in major magazines and journals. Fayyaz Aziz keeps a close eye on the changing situations. Awareness and pulse. He is fully aware of social, cultural, political and societal attitudes and values. The proof of a writer being a real and original writer is that he stays connected to the roots of the society and environment in which he breathes so that he can point out his strengths and weaknesses. Fayyaz Aziz's stories are based on facts in which he reflects the politics, culture, values and environment of the society. This research paper deals with the presentation of social and societal attitudes in Fayyaz's fiction.
Keyswords: Fayyaz Aziz, culture, society, social, societal, Short stories, book, Political, values
Pages: 564-576
Article: 46 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)46
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)46
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Psycho Analytical study of Mira Gee

Authors:
  1. Dr. Syed Aoun Sajid Naqvi
    Assistant Professor, Urdu department, Federal Urdu University, Islamabad
  2. Muhammad imran
    Lecturer (Urdu), Govt College, Mirpur, Azad Kashmir
Abstract: The Psychological views of Freud and Alfred Adler put a direct impact on the world literature. These psychological ideas became the basic stimulus for a literary movement. Meera G is one of the earliest poets in Urdu who included the element of sex in his poems as a basic tool under the influence of Freud’s theories of psychology. So, this research is conducted to determine the impact of psychology based literary movement on Meera G’s work.
Keyswords: Psychological movement, Trend and movement, Unconscious, Psychoanalysis, Free association, Idd, Ego, Super Ego, Flashback technique, Stream of consciousness
Pages: 577-594
Article: 47 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)47
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)47
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The difference of Symbol from Metaphore, Sign, Abstraction and Allegory

Authors:
  1. Dr. Syed Aoun Sajid Naqvi
    Assistant Professor, Urdu department, Federal Urdu University, Islamabad
  2. Abid Hussain
    Ph.D Scholar, Federal Urdu University, Islamabad
Abstract: Symbol, metaphor, sign, abstraction, Allegory seem to be the same terms in literary texts but In fact, there are subtle differences between them. These terms are often used in literary piece of writings, which sometimes lead to misunderstandings. To interpret artistic aesthetics of literature, it is essential to ensure a proper semantic understanding of the mentioned terms. This article clarifies the literary definition of these terms and their differences.
Keyswords: Symbol, Metaphore, Sign, Abstraction, Allegory
Pages: 595-604
Article: 48 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)48
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)48
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Literary services of Mazhar ud din Mazhar

Authors:
  1. Khalid Mehmood
    Ph.D. Scholar, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore
  2. Dr. Muhammad Ijaz Tabassam
    Assistant Professor, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore
  3. Allah Yar Saqib
    Assistant Professor, CAST Post Graduate College, Sahiwal
Abstract: In his collections, he has made the human instinct of beauty and love the subject of poetry with great fervor and restlessness. Mazharuddin Mazhar's literary services. Mazhar-ud-Din Mazhar's speech brings out many interesting aspects of life along with the traditional style of performance. Therefore, the realization of the true realities of life, the sorrow of migration, the heart-breaking memories of Amritsar and the grief of losing one's loved ones became the adornment of his words. In his poetry, he embellishes the moments of separation and sadness, the change of society and culture with his heartfelt songs. The main characteristic of his poetry is pain, simplicity and smoothness, excitement and separation, meeting. He abandoned the useless ideas of beauty and love and gave place in his heart to the realities of social life and degraded humanity. He sees the element of aversion to the zeal of action in the children of Tawheed and burns the torch of passion and joy in them. Kalam Mazhar-ud-Din Mazhar, due to his revolutionary zeal, considered it necessary to have a tool like movement and action in the youth of the nation. The riots that led to the partition of India resulted in the loss of millions of lives, rapes, sexual and physical violence. "shmsheer-o-snaan" is the best reflection of the darkest period of human history due to the shocking events and heart-breaking tragedies of the subcontinent. Kalam Mazhar-ud-Din Mazhar is a mirror of these eyewitness accounts. Putting love and peace behind them, the custom of slaughtering one another grew. He describes the trauma of these cultural values and the social ills with his own eyes. This article will cover the above topics.
Keyswords: Emigration, Separation, Civilization, Sexual Violence, Human Behavior, Eyes of Vision, Pain Of Migration, Loss Of Wonder, Techniques, Familiarity With Peace, Real Facts. Purity and Sanctity, Filial Piety
Pages: 605-623
Article: 49 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)49
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)49
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Another Aspect of Mustansar Hussain Tarar’s Novel “Khas-o-Khashak Zamany

Authors:
  1. Tazeen Fatima
    Ph.D Scholar, Department of Urdu, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore
  2. Dr. Taqdees Zahra
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore
Abstract: Mustansar Hussain Tarar holds a prominent place in Urdu literature. His novel with the name of “Khas-o-Khashak Zamanay” was published in 2010. This novel has a vast canvas and a very composed plot . Excellent characterization, beautiful sceneries, fiction, magical realism and flashback technique has made this novel unique in its genre. In this novel, a history of hundred years and almost one hundred and fifty characters have been extraordinarily presented in very simple and elegant language. Plot is multi-directional but composed which opens up layer by layer and the reader enters from one era of history to the next. The novel opens new horizons of cognition for the reader – Accidents transform into thoughtful events with the flow of time and present keeps on changing into past. In this flow of time customs, values and traditions devalue like straws and keep moving on the high tide of time. This aspect that how the racial differences fade out, the differentiation between aristocrats and vile of the society diminishes and urge of acquisition of wealth makes people both of high and low statures stand on the same ground, has been reviewed in this article.
Keyswords: Vast canvas, Magical realism, History, New horizon, Past and Present, Flow of time, Traditions, Customs, Racial differences, Acquisition of wealth
Pages: 624-632
Article: 50 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)50
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)50
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Hakeem Muhammad Saeed: Life and Travelogue

Authors:
  1. Farhana Anjum
    PhD Urdu Research scholar, Deptt. of Urdu, Sarhad University Peshawar
  2. Dr. Ghuncha Begam
    Assistant Professor, Deptt. of Urdu, Sarhad University Peshawar
  3. Farzana Tabassum
    PhD Urdu Research scholar, Deptt. of Urdu, Sarhad University Peshawar
Abstract: Hakeem Muhammad Saeed's personality has many facets. He was also a physician, educationist, writer, travel writer and social personality. He was a friend and mourner of the young people of his nation. He proved to be a great thinker and a great leader for Pakistan. You have traveled to many countries and saved your travel stories in the form of travelogues. The number of his travelogues is more than forty. His travelogues are a wealth of information along with knowledge and literature. In the article under review, apart from his scholarly and literary achievements, his travelogues have also been critically evaluated.
Keyswords: Hakeem Muhammad Saeed, Personality, Physician, Educationlist, Writer, Thinker
Pages: 633-644
Article: 51 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)51
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)51
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