ISSN(Print): 2709-9636 | ISSN(Online) : 2709-9644 | ISSN-L : 2709-9636


Scientific and Intellectual Aspects of Urdu Ghazal in the State of Jammu and Kashmir: A Historical Analysis of the Poetry of "Bashir Sarafi"


  1. Dr. Yousf Mir
    Assistant Professor , Department of Urdu , University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
  2. Amar Jahangir
    PhD Scholar , Department of History and Pakistan Studies , International Islamic University, Islamabad
  3. Dr. Anbrin Khawaja
    Assistant Professor , Institute of Kashmir Studies , University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir


In this research paper, the researcher takes an adventure to shed light on Ghazal through an analysis, comprehensively; keeping in view Basher Sarfi's Ghazal. It is a living, dynamic of Urdu poetry. In Urdu poetry, Ghazal has the highest, most significant and richest capital. The main reason for the success and popularity of Ghazal is that it has been able to keep up with the emotions and feelings of the people of Urdu in every era. Basher Sarfi’s poetry depicts sorrow, grief, migration, fear, travel, sadness, death, despair, grievances, and instability of the world, self-talk, patriotism, modern conditions, oppressive views of the beloved, claims, and local, national and international references. References to Kashmir as well as landscapes, patriotism, remembrance of victory, literary attitudes after the partition of Kashmir, resistance elements, beauty and love, love, sincerity, truth, religion, loneliness, life, resistance, optimism , satire and humorous elements, modern sensibility, class consciousness, perception of social issues, perception of civic and social attitudes, political consciousness, ideal of world peace, reference to global attitudes and events, local culture, cultural elements and many other symbols and references. A variety of topics and intellectual and artistic trends appear to emerge. Two methods are used to determine the position and status, one is the thematic study of creation and the other is the technical study. Thematic studies look at whether the creator has incorporated new themes into his work, that is, thematic diversity. These are the basic things that are seen and tested in the thematic study.


Ghazal, Thematic, Diversity, Trends, Patriotism, Consciousness, Perception


Article # 14
Volume # 2
Issue # 4

DOI info

DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-IV)14
DOI Link:


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