ISSN(Print): 2709-9636 | ISSN(Online) : 2709-9644 | ISSN-L : 2709-9636

(2021) Volume 2, Issue 3

Akhir-e-Shab Key Humsafar, A Unique and complete Novel by Qurrat-ul-Ain Haider

  1. Dr. Asma Rani
  2. Dr. Aqsa Naseem Sindhu
Abstract: Qurrat-ul-Ain Haider is one of the most outstanding, influential literary Urdu fiction writers. She is known for her novels, short stories, and academic writings. She was something unique that happened to urdu literature.Her literary works include twelve novels and novellas and four collection of short stories.The fourth novel in Qurrat-ul-Ain Haider's literary work was Akhir-e-Shab Ke Humsafar (A novel on the Naxalite Movement and Bengal unrest) was published in 1979. In the novel with utmost ease she narrated the harsh realities of life. A complete summary of the novel by the author will be presented in this article. The article would illustrate how, with confidence, she successfully explained to her readers the complicated issues of politics, history, economics, and culture.
Keyswords: Qurrat-ul-Ain Haider's, Novel, Communism, Revolution, Independence
Pages: 1-9
Article: 1 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)1
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Recognition of Concentration Vision in Urdu Novel

  1. Nazia Parveen
  2. Dr. Tahira Iqbal
Abstract: Focalization is the relationship between the scene and the perception of a character. This connection is the significant part of the content of a story. The current study foregrounds that either the incidents in story line are narrated by the writer or a particular character’s performance exposes the series of events. This technique helps the readers to apprehend the given content. The entire situation becomes more evident through conceptual knowledge. Moreover, all the elements of association are necessary for better understanding. This article has explained focalization in selected Urdu novels
Keyswords: Focalization, Relationship, Significant, Foregrounds, Performance, Technique, Knowledge
Pages: 10-27
Article: 2 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)2
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The place of Dr. Wazir Agha in the view of his contemporaries and Critics (Some Important lovers of Dr. Wazir Agha)

  1. Safina Begum
  2. Prof. Dr. Tahira Iqbal
Abstract: Dr. Wazir Agha performed great deeds in poetry, criticism and literary journalism. He is included in one of those literary personalities of present age whobecom recognition of their age. A research and critical study has been given of whatever has been written on his thinking and creativity. It includes books, treatises, magazines, essays and research thesis. The place of Dr. Wazir Agha in the view of his contemporaries and critics. An effort is made to determine the status and place of Dr. Wazir Agha in the view of some important lovers of Dr. Wazir Agha namely Dr. Anwar Sadeed, Dr. Haroon-ur-RasheedTabassum and Dr. AbidKhurshid, Dr. Manazir Ashiq Harganvi, Dr. Nasir Abbas Nayyar.
Keyswords: Dr. Wazir Agha, Literary personalities, critics, status, important, lovers
Pages: 28-37
Article: 3 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)3
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Asar Sahbai’s Literary Services

  1. Naseer Ahmed Asad
  2. Dr. Ghulam Abbas Gondal
Abstract: Asar Sahbai Khwaja was born at Sialkot. He was the junior advocate of Quaid-e-Azam. His poetic work consists of various types of poetry He was greatly impressed by Allama Iqbal like other poets. He has used many poetic devices and topics of Allama Iqbal in his poetry. His poetry has been published in many leading Journals of sub-continent. Theology religion, morality, Sufism, love of nature, classics and Kashmiriat are the main topics of his poetry. This article covers the services of Asar for Urdu literature in a comprehensive way.
Keyswords: Junior, Advocate, Poetic, Consists, Poetry, Topics, Published, Religion, Morality, Sufism, Love, Nature
Pages: 38-51
Article: 4 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)4
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Role of Urdu Essayist Women in Reformation (1898 to 1930) Research Review

  1. Farzana Iqbal
  2. Dr. Badshah Munir Bukhari
Abstract: The journey of women essayists in Urdu can be traced back to about a century ago. They served for social reforms and services through their art. These essays are true reflection of women’s dedication towards attaintnent of knowledge and research spirit.Due to the work of women essayist the female lot of India got interested in literature and arose with a new vigor for letting their hidden potentialities come forth.These women, Through their essays attained the goal of preserving their culture. They accomplished the task of social reformation imbibing the spirit of a positive mindset to their essays. Their writings are a reflectionofsocial norms, language tools, conventions and true literary expressions of the era which they wrote in. Their pieces of writings are mirror to the colorful phenomena, attitude and human sentiments of the times. Female education, rights of women, social awareness and moral valueswere some of the core themes of their essays. Nerveless, the essays of female’s writerscouldn’t attain the light of popularity for a long spam of time. Like other genres of Urdu literature this essay writing by the women lot is also associated with “Taraqi Pasand Tehreek” Which is undoubtedly a serious misunderstanding. So the essay presented forth brings out a brief analysis of female essay works from 1898 to 1930 with relevance to their literary, political, social, religious and cultural achievements.
Keyswords: Journey, Essayists, Social Reforms, Reflection, Literature, Preserving
Pages: 52-67
Article: 5 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)5
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Idiom and Colloquial: Definition, Features, Formation and Differences

  1. Romana Ijaz
  2. Dr. Zamurd Kousar
Abstract: This study discusses different definitions, characteristics and utility of idiom and colloquial in the context of Urdu language. Historical evolution in the formation of Urdu idiom has also been traced out and the journey of Urdu idiom from Amir Khusrau is reevaluated. The paper also evaluates the significance of the idiom as guardian of the tradition of language owing to its capacities of permanence and continuity. In the light of definition of the idiom the methods of understanding of its meanings and origin have been derived with special reference to Urdu language. The paper also assesses the differences and similarities of colloquial with idiom. It concludes that the idiom’s basic structure remains unchanged with minor changes in respect of the time, situation, speaker and listener. It is also found out that difference of figurative meanings mentioned in different collections of Urdu idioms is due to taking specific or broad meanings of any word or concept related with that particular idiom. Moreover, idiom is different from colloquial due to emphasis on its figurative meanings.
Keyswords: Definitions, Characteristics, of Idiom, Colloquial, Urdu Language
Pages: 68-80
Article: 6 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)6
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The Tradition of Legendary Literature in Gujrat District in the Twentieth Century

  1. Mudassar Iqbal
  2. Dr. Syed Aoun Sajjid
Abstract: In literature, District Gujrat has its own individuality. Many renowned personalities took birth in this area of Greek. The most prominent figures among these are Abdullah Hussain and Anwer Masood. With above mentioned personalities, there are also many other literary personalities like Deputy Nazir Ahmed Dhelvi, and Syed Abid Ali who belong to this particular area. I have spent much of my time in this area. According to my experience, Gujrat could not maintain his own individuality as a literary center because Lahore and Rawalpindi took its literary figures in their laps. Some resided in big cities to seek their means of earning. Those who remained were waiting for their luck to shine. Lahore holds an important place with special reference to literature that is why literary activities have always been at peak there. Many movements took birth there, which had revolutionized the literary field, much research has been done on these organizations but despite being a rich literary place, Gujrat could never get this credit of being a prominent place from the literary point of view.
Keyswords: Abdullah Hussain, Nadar Log, Saif ur Rehman Safi, Khita Yunaan, Prof. Zuhair Kunjahi, Navel, Afsana, Shoaib Sadiq, Sang e Mar Mar
Pages: 81-97
Article: 7 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)7
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The Role of Education and Performnce in Islamic Mysticism: A Historical Study

  1. Dr. Anwar ullah
  2. Dr. Imtiaz Ahmed
  3. Dr. Rizwan Younas
Abstract: A large part of this Muslim Ummah is a believer in Sufism and Sufis. The popularity of Sufism has been evident, especially in the Indian subcontinent, as it is a proven historical fact that Sufis have been the first preachers of Islam in this region. In this society, Sofia's social and spiritual services are unforgettable. In the recent past, some scholars and researchers have started calling Sufism and Sufis an anti-Islamic movement. They are mentioned in various books in Urdu and other languages. The research paper under review sheds light on the historical background of Sufism. This research paper examines the views of different scholars and explores the relationship between Sufism and Islam. This research article will guide future researchers in investigating various aspects of Islamic mysticism.
Keyswords: Mysticism, Education, History, Islam, Urdu Language
Pages: 98-122
Article: 8 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)8
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Farhang Kuliyat Mir Farid Ahmad Barkati

  1. Gul Baz
  2. Prof. Dr. Ghulam Abbas Gondal
Abstract: “Farhang i Kuliyat i Meer” prepared by Farid Ahmad Barakati is a major work on the poetry of Meer Taqi Meer in genre of glossary. In contains most of word, compounds, idioms and figurative points of verses. He writes vocabulary meanings, poetic meanings and sometimes central idea of verse. He points out the words not used now a day. He also mentions the words and idiomatic expression: generally not opted for poetic expression but Meer arranged them delicately. It is a major work and most important one among the glossaries of classical Urdu poetry.
Keyswords: Meer, Barakati, Farhang, Expressions, Glossary, Poetry, Meaning, Classical, Idiomatic
Pages: 123-129
Article: 9 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)9
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Movement Launched by Dar-ul-Ishait-i-Punjab for Women’s Rights

  1. Rukhsana Kausar
  2. Dr. Humaira Irshad
Abstract: Survival of a nation lies in equal contribution of men and women in social, economic and cultural progress and prosperity. Women were deprived of their fundamental rights. As a reaction, women initiated a movement called Feminism for their rights in Europe in the nineteenth century. Molvi Mumtaz Ali started a publishing firm, Dar-ul-Ishaiat-i-Punjab at Lahore in 1898. Its publications especially weekly magazine "Tehzeeb-un-Niswan" played a vital role in the movement of feminism in the sub-continent. It inspired women to write articles on their various issues and rights. Their writings were published in Tahzib-un-Niswan. It motivated women to contribute writing journals, articles, novels, housekeeping manuals, cook books, books of etiquette, prose and poetry
Keyswords: Feminism, Publishing Firm, Publications, Inspiration, Contributions, Articles, Women, Rights
Pages: 130-146
Article: 10 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)10
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Influence of Mushtaq Ahmed Yousufi on Dr. Waheed-ur-Rehman Khan's Humorous Prose

  1. Qasim Ali
  2. Dr. Mamuna Subhani
Abstract: In Urdu literature, satire and humor are found both in poetic and prosaic structures. It comes into existence as a result of social discrimination and ludicrous reaction. When the horse of power is out of control and no one dares to face it, it becomes necessary to take support from satire and humor. That is to say, satire and humor is a world sunk into the ocean of tears, society gripped in reconciliations, day-to-day new assaults of social values, bitter realities of life; it is an art to accept cruel truths and painful calamities and interestingly present them. As compared to other genres of literature, satire and humor are somewhat distinctive which gives it a different identity. Satire and humor is an art based on two basic and different elements; it springs by molding realities into joys and by committing to memory the common joys of life. Satire and humor in connection with Urdu literature just like the other genres of literature have their origin from the Persian language. In Urdu literature, there have been much unparalleled humorists who are themselves the identity of humor rather than the humor itself like Mirza Assadullah Khan Ghalib, Pitrus Bukhari, Rasheed Ahmed Siddiqui, Kanayah Laal Kapoor, Ibrahim Jalees, Shafiq-ur Rehman, Shaukat Thanvi, Ibn-e Insha, Mohammad Khalid Akhtar, Colonel Muhammad Khan, and Mushtaq Ahmed Yousafi, etc. Mushtaq Ahmad Yousafi, the greatest humorist of the recent time has synchronized the tradition of satire and humor of Urdu literature in such a skilled and introspective way that it strikes the perception of everyone. He has expanded the treasure of Urdu humor in such a manner that levels it with international literature; he has gives the standard to satire and humor, not to speak of exceeding that standard even Yousafi could not exceed it; its evidence lies in his collections “AAbe Gum” “Shaame Shere Yaaraan.” He has created such humorous literature that the tradition of Urdu humor will continually be indebted to him. The creations of Yousafi have not only given a new style and color to Urdu literature but also affected the humorists of the present era as well. This think-piece delves deep into these contemplative and skillful effects of the humor of Mushtaq Ahmad Yousafi and how he affected his contemporary humorist Dr. Waheed Ul Rehman and put effects on his literary creations
Keyswords: Literature, Humor, Mushtaq Ahmad Yousfi, Waheed-ul-Rehman, Authority, Treasure, Satire
Pages: 147- 160
Article: 11 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)11
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Humanitarian Role in Urdu Novel Tradition before Independence

  1. Muhammad Sameer
  2. Dr. Mazhar Abbas
Abstract: Humanism was a system of belief in Italy in 13th and 14th centuries and later spread in all over Europe.In the age of Renaissance humanism introduce the revival of classic literature and poetry.Later that in French and Russian revolution the meaning of humanism changed to the well being of people who deprived from different reasons.After the world war 1st and 2nd the humanism concepts are defined in shape of Secularism, Marxism, Religious, Existentialism and Neo-humanism.Literature especially urdu novel shows its thoughts and ideas for the well being of human.So this term known as human character or Insaan Dost.Before partition urdu novel has its own human character which are conceptual in term of humanism
Keyswords: Human, intellect, well being, secularism, Marxism, religion, society, Existensialism
Pages: 161- 176
Article: 12 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)12
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Bahawalpur fiction writers share women's part in Urdu post-Independence

  1. Ejaz Naseem
  2. Dr. Liaqat Ali
Abstract: The land of Bahawalpur is an important part of Pakistan. This excellent historical inheritance is situtated in the heart of Pakistan. This territory has its own separate recognition in the light of knowledge and literature. The beginning of Urdu prose in Bahawalpur was begun by Mirza Muhammad Ashraf Gorgani’s Shama Shami, Bin Basi Rustam. While Ali Ahmad Riffat, Mahmood Ali Fasoon and Hnayat Tareen explored the literary tradaition by writing their fictions. After the establishment of Pakistan, men and woman partricipated actively in the Urdu fiction. Besides the men writers of fiction, there is a large list of women writers, who in comparison with men writers, wrote while taking quality and quantity into account. They not only discussed the problems of women but also written fiction while taking into account the techniques of art and artifice. In this research article after the independence of Pakistan. The women writers of fiction of Bahawalpur will be analyzed
Keyswords: Fiction, Woman short story, Bahawal Pur, Excellent Historical Inheritance, The Literary Tradatian, After independence
Pages: 177-190
Article: 13 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)13
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Novel and History----Similarities and Differences

  1. Muhammad Ashraf
  2. Dr. Khalid Nadeem
Abstract: Novel and History are though different sources of knowledge but there is a deep relation between them. This relation provides the base of creative sense in literary works. Both Novel and History play their role to highlight the different aspects of a society in particular era. Both the Novelist and the Historian try to elaborate the colors of human life in different ways. In this article the similarities and the differences between Novel and History are being discussed. There are so many differences are found between the both which established a line of difference very clearly
Keyswords: Nowel, History, Discourse, Subjective, Objective, Creative Sense
Pages: 191-204
Article: 14 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)14
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Prof. Latif uz Zaman Khan: An Introduction

  1. Muniba Zahra Naqvi
  2. Dr. Shoaba Mueed
Abstract: Latif uz Zaman Khan belonged to Rajputana state of Rajhistan (India). In the aftermath of partition upheavel, he migrated to Pakistan in 1948 and got settled in Karachi.He did Masters in English literature from University of Karachi and embarked upon his career as an educationist. Despite teaching English literature throughout his career, the deepest love for mother tongue (Urdu) never departed his heart. He is famous in literary circles for his research work on Ghalib and Rashid Ahmad Siddiqi.Along with it his meritorious services in the fields of translation, research, editing, letter writing, column writing and character sketching are praiseworthy.
Keyswords: Latif uz Zaman, Rajputana, Migrated, Pakistan, Masters in English, Mother Tonge, Urdu, Galib, Rasheed Ahmed Siddiqui, Letter Writing
Pages: 205-220
Article: 15 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)15
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The concept of Love and Beauty in Joun Elia’s Poetry

  1. Maqsood Ahmad
  2. Dr. Majid Mumtaz
  3. Dr. Tehseen Bibi
Abstract: Joun Elia is one of the well- known names of modern Urdu poetry. He introduces the modern trends of Urdu poem and ode in poetry .He expressed his thoughts on different topics and gave a new touch and express to his thoughts. His poetry describes the concept of “love and beauty” with new trends. This article is going to describe and discuss. The different aspects of Joun Elia poetry with special reference to love and beauty
Keyswords: Thougts, History, Philosphy, Nostalgia, Fanciful Paradise, Poetic Features, Soft Tempers, Sensitiveness, Epoch Issues
Pages: 221-230
Article: 16 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)16
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A Stylistics Review of a "Naat" of Dr. Ehsan Akbar

  1. Shaukat Mahmood Shaukat
  2. Dr. Abdul Sattar Malik
Abstract: Professor Dr. Ehsan Akbar (1938) is a renowned Poet, critic, researcher and a professor of Urdu Language and literature. He wrote many beautiful Lyrics and poems. Some of his Lyrics and poems became famous in the history of Urdu Literature. Now a day, he is mostly writing the, “Naatia” poetry. Resultantly, his “Naatia” poetry book, titled as “Tahoor” has come in to existence in April, 2021. In this Article, a stylistics review of one of his “Naat” has been taken, which is included in his quoted “Naatia” book “Tahoor”.
Keyswords: Naat, Ahsan Akbar, Tahoor, Prosody, Couplets, Style and Stylistics
Pages: 231-239
Article: 17 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)17
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A Critical Study of "YA KHUDA" with respect to Feminism

  1. Dr. Nazia Younis
Abstract: YA KHUDA is a master piece writing of legendary Qudrat ullah Sahab. He is famous for his SAHABNAMA, a bio-ghaphy. YA KHUDA is, in fact, highlighting the brutal attitude of power players, during the partion of August 1947. At the same time, it is also deal with the Feministic discussions. This research article is a related to this aspect
Keyswords: Feminism, Qudrat ullah Sahab, Dilshad, Partition of 1947, women rights, Research Articles
Pages: 240-250
Article: 18 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)18
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Urdu Novels and Fundamentalism in reference of "Angan"

  1. Dr. Muhammad Bilal
  2. Dr. Majid Mumtaz
  3. Maqsood Ahmad
Abstract: ‘Fundamentalism’ is usually ascribed to religious affiliation of individuals. It is an approach or a trend to evaluate individuals’ actions or behavior in religious background. It has acquired level of top trends in every walk of life, be it media, arts, industry or literature. Since last few decades it has spread around the globe regardless of any discrimination between poor and rich, developed, and undeveloped countries or regions. Another prominent feature of ‘fundamentalism’ is that it is not delimited to any particular social or religious group rather without any discrimination of religion, nation, or education it prevails everywhere. Current research paper sets out to investigate elements of ‘fundamentalism’ in a very popular classical Urdu novel ‘Tuzkarra’ written by Khadija Mastoor. The study delineates that none of the characters including Hindus, Sikh, or Muslims are free from this social trait. Thus, this is a social evil which by no means can be associated with any particular religion. The author has objectively studied all the characters and themes presented in this noel to present an unbiased picture to the readers.
Keyswords: Fundamentalism, religious, media, arts, literature, discrimination, education, popular, Urdu novel
Pages: 251-258
Article: 19 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)19
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Haneef Naqvi’s Editins Services

  1. Nazir Ahmad
  2. Dr. Abrar Abdul Salam
Abstract: Hanif Naqvi was a very careful researcher and editor of Urdu Language and Literature. He re-edited ‘ Maasr-e-Ghalib’ edited by Qazi Abdul Wadood. ‘Tazkira e Shuray Sahswan’ edited by Abu Al- Kamal Hakeem Syed Ejaz Ahmed Moijz and Hayat-Ul-Ulma, edited by Maulana Syed Abdul Baqi with great care and diligent. He has taken great care in these treatments and has added valuable corrections to the works of his predecessors. In view of his work, it can be claimed that he has made new directions in the Urdu compilation tradition. In addition, linguistic and spelling rules and regulations have been fully complied with in ‘ Maasr-e-Ghalib’ , He has made important additions and corrections to Ghalib’s habits, Ghalib’s life, period of Ghalib and as well as linguistic spelling matters.
Keyswords: Haneef Naqvi ki Tadveni Khidmat, Research Articles
Pages: 259- 273
Article: 20 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)20
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A Comparative Analysis of Intellectual and Literary Contribution of Syed Masood Ijaz Bukhari

  1. Syed Mujassam Hussain Sha
  2. Waqas Faryad
  3. Dr. Tahseen Bibi
Abstract: Syed Masood Ijaz Bukhari is the most significant name of modern Urdu Poet. His intellectual and creative concerns have a socio-cultural backdrop depicted through Pakistani civilizations. It entailed the elementary sketch of his thought and poetry and provides us the outline of all most all the fundamentals ideas which become the building blocks of his poetic pursuits. This article attempts to trace the contours of Syed Masood Ijaz Bukhari creative concerns in their broader aspects. Syed Masood Ijaz's intellectual and literary services in the broadest sense of the importance of poetry and song, imagination, thought and speech in human life and society. They seem to have a deep thought that makes personal symbols impersonal and universal. For this reason, the mental distance between the reader and the poet is maintained. Which, if determined or eliminated, limits the symbolic value of poetry. But where this distance remains indefinite, the symbolic value of creation increases and a new interpretation is possible. Due to these characteristics, Syed Masood Ijaz Bukhari has a unique status.
Keyswords: Identity, Supremacy, Relationship, Responsible, Individuality, Resentment, Nature, Culture
Pages: 274-285
Article: 21 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)21
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Narrative Art in Rasheed Amjad's Fictions

  1. Waqas Faryad
  2. Maqsood Ahmad
  3. Dr. Tahseen Bibi
Abstract: Rasheed Amjad is one of the most authority’s names in the world of Urdu literature in terms of fiction, which has enriched Urdu Fiction with its masterpieces. He is considered one of the most prominent fiction writers of modern time. He known for his fictional style, allegorical narrative, mythology, deep attachment of the land, Pakistani mythology, Islamic elements, retrieval of the past, beautiful expression of symbols and a beautiful combination of modernity. Rasheed Amjad has used various narrative experiments in his fictions and has created successful fictions in Pakistani Urdu fiction. Each of his fictional narration seems to be a new experiment. Rasheed Amjed’s fiction has simple narratives in terms of style. His fictions explore new topics and talk about newness. They use a unique narrative style in their fiction and have a special individuality. A special kind of poetry, a sense of romance, the formation of narrative with the help of metaphors, symbolic expression and deviation from direct prose expression are the hallmarks of his style. These are just some of the goal setting shareware that you can use. In this fiction, he deviates from the direct prose narrative, uses metaphors to form the narrative, and adopts symbolic expression.
Keyswords: Urdu Fictions, Literature, Narrative, Symbolism, Narratology, Structuralism, Nature, Culture
Pages: 286-292
Article: 22 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)22
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Role of the Monthly

  1. Naseer Ahmad
  2. Dr. Sumaira Ijaz
Abstract: Translation is an important linguistic and creative action. Tradition of translation can be found out in the different languages of literary world. Urdu Language and Literature is also embellished with the tradition of translation. Its initial literary work is standing on the foundation of translation. To promote Urdu translation, Urdu magazines played a key role. So when in May 1929 Monthly "ADBI DUNYA" was published then along with other genres, translations were also published, in which both type of genres i.e. poems and prose included. It was the main objective of the propagation of "Adbi Dunya" to transfer the literature of developed languages into Urdu. In "Adbi Dunya" the literary genres which were introduced are Fictions, Dramas, Essays, Poems and Songs. All the published translations took part an important role for the betterment and expansion of Urdu language and literature. Due to these translations Urdu literature has become a good capitalist among the treasures of all other developed languages. In perspective of Fun and Technique Urdu Fiction improved. Urdu poetry also got liberty from unnatural restrictions. Resultantly, now Urdu language has tremendous capability to represent every type of academic and literary concepts.
Keyswords: Translation, Linguistic, Creative Action, Developed, Capability
Pages: 293-305
Article: 23 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)23
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The Uniqueness of Iqbal's Diverse Scholarly Themes and Style of Urdu Prose

  1. Shazia Gull
  2. Professor Dr. Shahid Iqbal Kamran
Abstract: The Urdu text of Iqbal is serious and diverse. Iqbal’s style of Urdu writing is impressive and varied. Iqbal’s Urdu text is also notable in term of eloquence and colorful language. Since the subject of Iqbal’s Urdu writing are different so are the form of his, But there is also a look at the typical language and color full statement. Since the subjects of Iqbal’s Urdu writing are different, so are his writing styles. Iqbal chooses his style according to his subject. He writes his essays in a lively and interesting way. Demonstrating a deep awareness of sociology in Quami- Zindagi. In his last article Iqbal expresses his views in religious, political and social way. Iqbal also writes prose in his letters according to his mind, knowledge and status of his addresses. Iqbal imagination gives life to lifeless words. This article discusses these diverse features of Iqbal’s Urdu prose
Keyswords: Scholarly prose, writing style, romantic prose, fiction, plaintiff writing
Pages: 306-317
Article: 24 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)24
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An Analytical Study of Deewan-e-Ghalib Edited by Malik Ram (1957)

  1. Muhammad Ramzan
  2. Dr. Zafar Hussain Zafar
Abstract: Ghalib lies at a prominent place in Urdu poetry. His Urdu Diwan was edited five times during his life while it was edited enormously by different research scholars after that. Among all these editions, the Diwan edited by Malik Ram gets an important and prominent position due to its critical concepts and featuring, as it includes almost all the verses of Ghalib. The second prominance was obtainted by “Nuskha Arshi."
Keyswords: Manuscript, Deewan-e-Ghalib, Mutadawal Deewan-e-Ghalib, Personal Manuscript, Difference among manuscript, Text
Pages: 318-335
Article: 25 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)25
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Code Mixing and Code Switching in Sociolinguistics: Basic Discussions

  1. Dr. Nazia Malik
Abstract: The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Literature has a deep connection with linguistics. Language is a social function which is why it is called a branch of linguistics, sociolinguistics. The study of language in the context of sociolinguistics in context. Sociolinguistics actually depends on multilingual and multilingual topics and our country Pakistan is a multilingual country in terms of national and regional. People used to mix several languages during the conversation and do code mixing and code switching. In particular, the mixture of English language is considered a source of pride and English language is the religion of colonial societies. Now English language has been absorbed into Urdu language and has become a part of it. Code mixing and code switching is present in every society and language of the world. Due to this, languages are moving towards progress and decline. Written to explain Western techniques.
Keyswords: Sociolinguistics, Code Mixing, Code Switching, Colonial, Bilingual, Multilingual, English Language, Intervention, Mixing, Western Term, External Sentence, Inner Sentence
Pages: 336-347
Article: 26 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)26
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Elements of Biography in Hajj Travelogues of Female Writers

  1. Toshiba Saeed
  2. Dr. Muhammad Sufian Safi
  3. Dr. Muhammad Rehman
Abstract: Travelogue is an important form of Urdu literature. Like other languages travelogues have been written with great interest in Urdu language, the involvement of females in this area is quite worthy. Female writers have also written travelogues and thus the unique travelogues of female writers were published. In these travelogues hajj travelogues have been included in large number, in which interest of females in religion and following of religious rules is different from male writers, as travelogue have the quality to absorb other forms of literature. So, female hajj travelogues have the impact of biography, life history, letter writing, storytelling, poetry and short story.
Keyswords: Travelogue, language, literature, quality, religion, interest, female, biography
Pages: 348-356
Article: 27 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-III)27
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