ISSN(Print): 2709-9636 | ISSN(Online) : 2709-9644 | ISSN-L : 2709-9636

(2021) Volume 2, Issue 1

The tradition of hymn Writing in the Folksongs of Pakistani Languages

  1. Dr Ehsan Ullah
    Assistant Professor, Department of Punjabi, GC Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan
Abstract: Every writer, belonging to Islamic culture, takes hymn writing as religious obligation. Folk literature which reflects the moral, cultural and social norms of the nations reflects the various tapestries of hymns to Allah. We find such traditions rampant in every genre such as Lori, tappa, boli, dhola, mahia etc. and in every local language such as Brahvi, Sindhi, Kashmiri, Balochi, Punjabi, Khawar, Torali. This article presents the tradition of hymn writing in the major languages of Pakistan. Inspite of having geographical and social differences, the obligation of hymn writing is a shared value. Such an idea, that dates back to antiquity provides a logical unity of the nation, even in contemporaneity
Keyswords: Islamic Culture, Religious, Literature, Moral, Folk Literature
Pages: 1-26
Article: 1 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)1
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1857 War of Independence in Punjabi Folk Literature

  1. Dr. Iftikhar Ahmed Sulehri
    Assistant Professor Punjabi, Govt College University, Lahore
  2. Asad Mehmood Khan
    Expert, Urdu Literature,
Abstract: In this article the writer has discussed the war of independence1857 in Punjabi folk literature .In the beginning of the article the writer has told that East India company occupied punjab in 1849 .There were two purposes before company. To restore law and order and to generate revenew easily. This gave birth to rebellion because the local people had hatred against the policies of British.Roy Ahmad Khan Kharral was famous for his bravery in Gogaira at that time.He considered British as usurp.In 1857 the Joiya tribe refused to give land tax .On this the British arrested many persons of Joiya tribe. Roy Ahmad Khan Kharral got prisoners released after mounting pressure on Deputy Commissioner. The freedom fighters like Murad Fityana and Sarang also stood by Roy Ahmad Khan Kharral in the war of independence
Keyswords: War, Independence, Punjabi, Folk, East India Company, Punjab, Law and Order, British
Pages: 27-36
Article: 2 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)2
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Iqbal's Concept of Life

  1. Mr. Usman Ghani Raad
    Senior Instructor, Department of Urdu, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad
  2. Muhammad Abrar Siddiqui
    MPhil Scholar, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad
Abstract: If Iqbal's poetry is thoroughly reviewed by both Urdu and Persian, it would seem that Iqbal teaches mankind to move forward in general and Muslim in particular, to understand life. The main purpose of any human being is to observe his surroundings and then to find the key to his success for the future. In Iqbal's poetry, all the metaphors, symbols , Shaheen, Mard e Momin, Aql o Khirad and Khudi and philosophy should be assembled at one point and we see this point as a particularly, It is believed that Iqbal teaches man only and only activity
Keyswords: Iqbal, Poetry, Urdu, Persian, Mankind, Muslim, Life, Metaphors, Shaheen, Mard e Momin, Philosophy
Pages: 37-44
Article: 3 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)3
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Impact of Environmental Sciences on Urdu Literature

  1. Dr Shazia Razzaq
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Lahore College for Woemn University, Lahore
Abstract: In view of the scientific studies of present age, Literature holds a unique status in scientific studies also a part of “ecology". My article is a study of the impact of different branches of ecological knowledge on Literature. My objective through this article is to highlight the exceptional characteristic and importance of literature and ecological studies as well as their relationship .The important fact which have revealed as a result of this research work is that literature and ecological knowledge are not aliens .The study shows that they are not inferior or superior to each other but are placed side by side just like members of one family or rays flowing from same source which is human being. Ecological knowledge is revolving around this source in a circle and the rays running there from absorbs in literature and so after getting fresh energy again becomes a part of circle revolving around the source. It is being discussed that literature and ecological knowledge are interlinked and are stepping ahead side by side.
Keyswords: Literature, Scientific, Exceptional, Importance, Ecological, Inferior, Superior
Pages: 45- 58
Article: 4 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)4
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Magical Realism Discourse and Application: Technical Study of Urdu Novel

  1. Muhammad Ramzan
    Scholar Ph.D Urdu, Department of Urdu, NUML, Islamabad
  2. Dr. Ambreen Tabassum Shakir Jan
    Associate Professor, Department of Urdu, NUML, Islamabad
Abstract: The term "Magical realism" is used for “Jadowi Haqiqat” in Urdu Novel. Magical realism is a modern technique in novel writing, used initially by Hawan Ralpho in his Novels. Afterwards Gabriel Garcia also used this technique in his novels in “Hundred Years of Solitude”. Whereas in Urdu literature Qurah tul Ainn Haider Mirza, Ather Baig, Dr. Muhammad Ahsen Farooqi , Shamas ur Rehman Farooqi, Mustanser Hussain Tarrar, Akhtar Raza Saleemi and Syed Kashif Raza also used this term in their respective Fictional Works. Keeping in view of Aristotle, he also considered it an effective method to present one's narrative dimensions in fiction. The Fiction writing style has been changed up to the establishment of Pakistan as the structure of social and political changes occur, so for the writing conventions/ dimensions in prose necessarily be changed. The change in writing style also provided new writing conventions and dimensions in proses literary works. Else that the international raise also provided thoughts and works techniques in the subcontinent, the Inner matters and new emerging trends in prose writing, are the major themes of modern novels.
Keyswords: Universality, Literature, Sublimation, Imagery, Imagination, Realism, Social Realism, Climax
Pages: 59- 75
Article: 5 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)5
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The Qur’anic Combination in Poetical and Thoughtful Style of Allama Muhammad Iqbal

  1. Mrs. Rifat Choudhry
    Scholar PhD, (Iqbal Studies), AIOU, Islamabad
  2. Dr. Muhammad Afzal Butt
    Chairperson, Department of Urdu, GC Women University, Sialkot
  3. Professor Dr. Rubina Tareen
    Ex Professor, Department of Urdu, BZU Multan
Abstract: Allama Muhammad Iqbal was a multidimensional personality. There were a lot of thoughtful and philosophical aspects in his nature. The source of inspiration, light, energy, and motivation for all these aspects in his character was the Holy Qur’an. Keeping in mind the heights and peaks of knowledge and intuition which Allama Iqbal attained through ancient and modern education, he was fundamentally first discovering and then presenting the message of Qur’an through his poetry. He was not just only a poet, but also a teacher of Qur’an, whose poetry was a blend, combination and infact a tafseer of Qur’an. This is one of the reasons we see a lot of references from the Holy Qur’an throughout his poetical work. He used the Qur’anic phrases, words, and terminologies many a times in his poems and was affirmed about that if we want to understand the true message of Qur’an, we need to learn the Arabic Language and Literature. His poetical style of expression is no doubt Qur’anic style. When we read in depths the poetry, essays, letters, and conversations of Allama Iqbal, we find that he had a splendid power of belief, and his heart was filled with contentment. He strongly believed that Qur’anic style is the Almighty Allah’s style and that was the reason of adopting the Qur’anic way in his poetry. This essay deals with the combination of Qur’an in his poetical and philosophical thoughts
Keyswords: Qur’anic Combination, Poetical Style, Philosophical world, Intuition, Belief, Light of Pen
Pages: 76-89
Article: 6 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)6
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Effects of New Poetry Movement on Urdu Fiction (Style and Technique)

  1. Samina Siddiqui
    Assistant Professor , Department of Urdu, NUML, Islamabad
Abstract: The 60's generally brought to the fore the different angles and experiences of symbolic technique. Which broke the framework of fiction and gave it an experimental level and turned it into a journey from the outside to the inside. Symbolism, modern fiction written under the influence of symbolism was actually under the influence of a new poem which was influenced by modernity under the influence of Marxist, aesthetic and psychological tendencies. The new poem was a form of expression. He also added foreign and symbolic stains to the fictions. Thus, the styles and experiences of the new poems of the sixties seem to be a part of modern Urdu fiction.
Keyswords: Style, Modernity, Psychological Psychology, Freedom of Thought, Abstraction, Symbolic Indicative Style, Imagery, Flexibility, Illustration, Traditional Deviation
Pages: 90-108
Article: 7 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)7
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Psychological Study of Jhon Elia's Poetry

  1. Dr. Saima Ali
    Assistant Professor, Education University, Lower Mall Campus, Lahore
Abstract: John Elia is considered as brilliant and popular Urdu Poet. His extraordinary personality and popularity has served him an important place among the legends of the fraternity. His poetry is easily understood the masses as compare to his complex personality. He belonged to a very great literary family. He has tremendous command over Urdu, Persian, Arabic, English and also some grasp of Greek language. He had deep knowledge of philosophy and history. The materialistic life was bad as compare to his intuitive domain. He was an average looking person. He was dissatisfied, egoistic, hopeless and sensitive person. He represents psychological problems in his poetry. He camouflages his weaknesses and depravity with a sense of domination in works
Keyswords: Complex Personality, Dissatisfied, Egoistic, Sensitive, Narcissism, Superiority Complex, Inferiority Complex
Pages: 109-116
Article: 8 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)8
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Urdu Ghazal Tradition in Blue Bar

  1. Samreen Kanwal
    Ph.D Scholar, Department of Urdu, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore
  2. Dr. Atta-ur-Rehman Meo
    Associate Professor, Department of Urdu, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore
Abstract: The meaning of the Punjabi words five, Five more meaning of water of the Rivers. As if Punjab meant Land of Five Rivers, Narrator Chenab, Beas, Sutlej and the land of Jhelum. Punjab was named mention of these five rivers of Punjab also found in Rig Veda. Ten thousand years in the Indus Valley. Harappa is a historical place of Punjab. Punjab has been divided into five times: i) Bald Bar, ii) Sandal Bar, iii) Gondal Bar, iv) Hard Bar, v) Blue Bar. Bar literally means forest between the Sutlej and Ravi rivers. Albcities towns and villages. The area of the blue bar is called Blue bar of specific region, historical, political history reflects civilization and Islamic trends. The area between the Sutlej and Ravi rivers. They are green and lush. Because of the Blue Waters of the Sutlej river the area was named Blue Bar Ghazal is a reliable genre if Urdu Ghazal of Urdu poetry synonymous so it will not be necessary. Moulvi Noorul Hassan in Noor-ul-Lughaat. He writes about Ghazlas the literal meaning of ghazal is to talk to women in terms of those poems whose beauty and love carpentry and parting taste of desire Ja mine Madness etc., Somewhere about love the representative poets of the Blue Bar, will be mentioned in this article, among them are selected poets of Okara Zafar Iqbal, Masood Okarvi among the selected poets of Sahiwal Syed Naveed, Haider Hashmi, Iftikhar Shafi , among the selected poets of Pak Pattan Sharif Sayed Younas Mateen, Among the selected poets of Vehari Fartash Syed, Zaeem Rasheed.
Keyswords: Poets, Punjabi, Rivers, Historical, Blue Bar, Region, Ghazal
Pages: 117-128
Article: 9 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)9
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Iqbal's thought in the context of colonialism: An Analytical Study

  1. Javed Iqbal
    Lecturer, Department of Urdu, Leads University, Lahore
  2. Nazia Parveen
    Ph.D Urdu Scholar, Govt College University, Faisalabad
  3. Dr. Irfan Tauheed
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Leads University, Lahore
Abstract: In the colonial era, patriotic sentiments were evident in the poetry of Iqbal. Thus, in the colonial era, Iqbal's poetry played a key role in promoting patriotic sentiments and feelings. He created most of the political poems in the colonial context and also fully supported communism. In the context of the colonial era, Iqbal made the rise and fall of the nation the subject and adopted the method of teaching and preaching. Iqbal kept on complaining about the plight of Muslims throughout his life. Iqbal's personality was individually influenced by political slavery. He represented the nation which was bound in chains of slavery. On the colonial and political circumstances of subcontinent, Iqbal gave a strict response and made the visions of integral Muslim world his mission.
Keyswords: Colonialism, Subcontinent, British Ruler, Colonial Context, Imperialism, Freedom from slavery, British Company, Iqbal's philosophy, Slavery of the subcontinent, Colonial system
Pages: 129-149
Article: 10 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)10
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Sir Syed Ahmed Khan as Philosopher

  1. Dr. Shazia Razzaq
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore
  2. Dr. Naila Anjum
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore
Abstract: Sir Syed Ahmed Khan is considered as an important personality among reformers known in Urdu literature and history of Pakistan. He played a major role in enhancing /promoting academic, political, social and literary capacity of Muslims of subcontinent. All his services in the aforementioned sectors were based on principles and ideology consequence of a specific philosophic mental approach. It has been intended in my present article to establish that Sir Syed was also a philosopher .The other aspects of his personality superseded his recognition as a philosopher, but it did not effect his prominence as a philosopher .Sir syed followed the philosophical thoughts of Imam Ghazali to the effect that philosophy is not separate from religion and rather religion is the nucleus of philosophy .Sir syed's approach was as such that Islam is not different from nature .He was a preacher of human progress on the basis of the said philosophical mind.
Keyswords: Personality, Reformers, Literature and History, Promoting, Philosophic
Pages: 150-161
Article: 11 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)11
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An Analysis of Ecological Effects on the Urdu Short Story

  1. Dr. Sumera Bashir
    Incharge, Department of Urdu, Urdu University, Karachi
  2. Dr. Samreena Liaqat
    Co-Teacher, Department of Urdu, Urdu University, Karachi
  3. Shama Aqil
    Research Scholar, Department of Urdu, Urdu University, Karachi
Abstract: The literal meaning of Ecology is surrounding it means all the things that effect the living beings. It is called Ecology.In fact, the study of Ecology comprises of the study of Biology, Mathematics, Geology, Geography, History, Economics, Fine Arts, Geological Science Water study.Through the study of ecology, we become aware of all the characteristics, processes, elements, qualities and weaknesses of our surroundings. As the world makes progress in the field of scientific technology, the industrial advancement and intensity of seasons, water pollution atomic explosions and the depletion of the ozone layer are such activities/processes which have made a negative impact on the ecology.The Earth becomes useless with natural disasters such as famine, earthquakes, floods and heavy rainfalls.These Ecology course has not brought about changes on the earth heavens, atmosphere and rivers in the present times only, but have been active since ancient times. For instance, the people of HazratSalehwere destroyed because of an earthquake, the prophet looth’s people were destroyed by stones, and the people of HazratNooh were met with destruction by a severe black storm.Ecology changes not only effect the earth, atmosphere or rivers etc., but they make a deep effect on the human behavior.Besides debates, demonstrations and rallies, newspapers and magazines, posters books, media and literature is an effective source of giving environmental awareness.Our story writers have given attention to the effects brought about on human behavior due to the intensity of seasons, famine struck earth and atomic explosions and have made it a theme for their short stories
Keyswords: Short Story, Ecology, Geological Science, Atomic Explosions, Earthquake
Pages: 162-175
Article: 12 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)12
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The Poetry of Ghalib and “Raqs-e-Sharar

  1. Dr. Nazia Younis
    Assistant Professor, Urdu Department, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad
Abstract: Shaukat Mahmood Shaukat (Nov 03, 1967) is a renowned poet, critic and researcher. He wrote more than half dozen books related to poetry and research. “Raqs-e-Sharar” is one of his valuable poetry books. It is amazing to view some glimpses of the style and the thoughts of Ghalib in the different verses of “Raqs-e-Sharar”. In this article, comparison of both the poets has been carried out through examples and illustrations, which are taken by their poet.
Keyswords: Ghalib, Shaukat, Poetry, Raqs-e-Sharar, Style, Thoughts, Verses and Examples
Pages: 176-184
Article: 13 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)13
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Literary Services of Important Prisoner Writers of Pakistan Army

  1. Noureen Rizvi
    Ph.D Scholar, Department of Urdu, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore
  2. Dr. Muhammad Arshad Ovaisi
    Head of Urdu Department, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore
Abstract: Literature is called the criticism of life and it plays important role in shaping the ideas and thoughts of masses. There are different branches of literature and prisoner literature is also branch of literature. When someone punished by Government and put behind the walls of prison, the literature produced in prison is called prisoner literature. Association between military persons and literature has always been very strong and acknowledged in all periods. Pakistan army produces great minds. Armed life is considered as the life of struggle and thrill. The Pakistan army’s writers have a great contribution in Urdu literature. They have a great work in Urdu prose and poetry .When Pakistan army’s writers and poets are imprisoned, they produce unique and great prisoner literature. The services of prisoner’s writers of Pakistan army regarding prisoner literature are highly commendable. In this article some prisoner personalities of Pakistan army and review of their prisoner writings is presented.
Keyswords: Pakistan Army, Prisoner literature, Army’s Writers, Imprisoned, Contribution, Commendable, Criticism
Pages: 185-202
Article: 14 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)14
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Shoukat Siddiqui’s novel Chardewari: A True Depiction of Lakhnawi Culture

  1. Kinza Noshair
    Ph.D Scholar, Lahore College For Women University, Jail Road Lahore
  2. Dr. Noreen Razzaq
    Assistant Professor Urdu, Lahore College for Women University, Jail Road Lahore
Abstract: Shoukat siddiqui is a renowned and authentic author in Urdu novel writing. He has not only shown his mastery in novel writing but has also succeeded in proving skillfulness in fiction writing. Shoukat Siddiqui created bulky novel Chardewari which is unique example of Lakhnawi culture. The whole panorama of Chardewari is artistic narration of elite class's customs, mannerism, generosity, attitudes, social and economic circumstances, their devotion and attitudes towards religion, problems of contemporary age as well as ability to understand their latent faculties. Each and every character of novel represents specific language, civilization and culture of its epoch
Keyswords: Shoukat Siddiqui, Chardewari, Lakhnawi Culture, Significance
Pages: 203-218
Article: 15 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)15
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A Historical Evaluation of Urdu Ghazal Since Beginning to Partition

  1. Dr. Irshad Begum
    Senior Instructor, Urdu Department, NUML, Islamabad
  2. Dr. Zeenat Afshan
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, University of Education Lahore, Faisalabad Campus
  3. Dr. Shahida Rasool
    Department of Urdu, The Women University, Multan
Abstract: Urdu ghazal orignates from Arabic to persion and from persion to Urdu .It started from introduction of Arabic Qaseedah. There was no ghazal in Arabic but tashbeeb. Romantic tashbeeb was called ghazal. The very first ghazal which is known in Urdu is by Ameer Khusru .Quli Qutab shah, wali dakni, Shah Hati, Abroo, Sirajuddin, Arzoo, Shakir Naji are important among classics. The golden period of Urdu ghazal include Meer Taqi Meer, Souda, Dard, Meer Soz and Qaim Chand Puri. Ghalib and Momin, Hali and Iqbal are Milestones of Urdu ghazal
Keyswords: Urdu Ghazal, Ameer Khusro, Wali Duckani, Kuli Kutab Shah, Concept of Beloved, Misticism, Ghalib, Iqbal
Pages: 219-231
Article: 16 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)16
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Vernacular section of “Ravi” Magazine (Beginnings, Evolution and Objectives)

  1. Wasif Latif
    Lecturer, Department of Punjabi, GC University, Lahore
  2. Dr. Abdul Wajid Tabassum
    Assistant Professor, Department of Pakistani Languages, Allama Iqbal open university, Islamabad
  3. Dr. Shaista Hameed Khan
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, GC University, Lahore
Abstract: The magazine “Ravi” is very popular annual magazine of Government College Lahore, which is continuously publishing up to date. In the beginning its medium of expression was English. From January 1910 and October 1911 started in Punjabi and Urdu languages respectively. The collective issue of December 1922 and January 1923 started the Vernacular section which lasted till the emergence of Pakistan. Due to the beginning of Vernacular section the regular editorial ship of Urdu and Punjabi (Persian Script) started under which the printing of Punjabi (Gurumukhi) and Hindi became possible. In this way the three Vernacular languages i.e. Hindi, Punjabi and Urdu have been publishing simultaneously. This step facilitated the development of the literature of these three languages. In this article the beginning, development (Evolution) and objectives of the Vernacular section have been discussed to understand the pivotal role of the historical magazine “Ravi” for the development of important languages of the Indian Subcontinent.
Keyswords: Government College, Lahore, Ravi, Magazine, Vernacular Section, Languages English, Urdu, Hindi, Punjabi, Gurumukhi, Persian script
Pages: 232-242
Article: 17 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)17
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Kanwal Kumari Thakur and idealism of the novel "Talash-e-Baharan"

  1. Dr. Muhammad Rafique
    Department of Urdu, GC University, Lahore
  2. Dr. Shaista Hameed Khan
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, GC University, Lahore
Abstract: Idealism in literature of any language is like dreamful thinking by such authors who have a keen desire to change their societies. To create some strong ideal characters whom thoughts, talks and actions are superb, appreciable, quotable and acceptable for their readership. The characters having basic importance to proceed the story or "Qissah" in fiction particularly novel and short story. The novel "Talash-e-Baharan" by Jamila Hashmi is a beautiful effort to beautify the Indo-Pak society. Her unique feminine character Kanwal Kumari Thakur is good example of idealism. The author of this article studied this character and tried to prove his views analyzing this main and strong character of Kanwal Kumari Thakur.
Keyswords: Urdu Literature, Novel, Idealism, characters, Talash-e-Baharanm, Jamila Hashmi, Kanwal Kumari Thakur
Pages: 243-251
Article: 18 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)18
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The Story of the Evil Women in the Context of Feminism

  1. Saira Bano
    PhD Scholar, Department of Urdu, National University of Modern Languages Islamabad
  2. Dr. Mushtaq Adil
    Head Department of Urdu, University of Sialkot
Abstract: Word Feminism means a movement that emphasizes the establishment of political, social and economic equality between men and women. In the present era, feminism has become an important and broad topic. Much has been written on this in Urdu literature. Speaking of the establishment of Pakistan, even then there was no formal association or movement for women's liberation and their rights. The movements that were prevalent among Hindu women were only for Hindu women. However, Islam gives women their basic rights. In the article under review, how is the woman mentioned in Kishwar Naheed's autobiography "The Story of a Bad Woman"? Since Kishwar Naheed is a fearless writer, she has eloquently mentioned a woman in her biography. In this article, the glimpse of Kishwar Naheed's femininity in her biography has been clarified.
Keyswords: Feminism, Emphasize, Prevalent, Economic Equality, Formal Association, Glimpse, fearless writer, biography, clarified
Pages: 252-261
Article: 19 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)19
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Trends and Possibilities of Documentary Research

  1. Dr. Shabnam Niaz
    Assistant Professor, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore
  2. Dr. Hina Kanwal
    Assistant Professor, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore
Abstract: Research is the name of such effort that starts from search and leads to attestation as well as exploration of knowledge. Besides enhancing knowledge, research is the basic necessity of a living society at each and every stage of life. Every research includes a part of written script at a specific time. Research based on written. Script or documentation is also called historical research. Documental research is a combination of stored information of the past and scientific method. This type of research is used to discover the background of all present difficulties regarding education or the facts about it. With respect to time, it is known as a research of past perspectives. Especially, the problems regarding language and literature depend upon historical research. In this article an attempt has been made to throw light on different stages, meaning and importance of documentary research.
Keyswords: Attestation, Exploration, Enhancing, Nesessity, Combination, Documental, Perspectives
Pages: 262-276
Article: 20 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)20
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The Poet of Modern Urdu Poem Akhtar Hussain Jaffri: A Review

  1. Rukhsana Parveen
    Assistant Professor of Urdu, Emerson University Multan
Abstract: When there is the supremacy of materialism and war of power, man becomes the traveler of that path where there are wells but dried. Where when someone opens his mouth to speak, is trampled upon under the heavy boots like obnoxious insects. Where there are demons of power in the inns of travel, words become meaningless. The poetry of Akhter Jaffery is the creation of a man who is very sensitive. He is alive in a particular era which is not less than Black Sea. That is why, his poetry presents three levels at one and the same time – sensitive, metaphysical and rational which creates in his poetry a specific kind of symbolism. When this political, social and cultural decline and annihilation becomes a triangle, the poetry of Akhter Hussain become a mirror where anyone can see his reflection. Cultural critique and historicism find new meanings from these hidden cultural symbols. So, most of his poems have symbolic meaning which sometime confuse the readers and sometime emerge as an obscure reality but it’s neither vague nor contradictory and his poetry certainly contains metaphorical signs of sufferings and hardships.
Keyswords: Modern Urdu Poem, Funoon, Akhtar Hussain Jaffri, Style, Symbol, Technique, Spirituality
Pages: 277-288
Article: 21 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)21
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The Role of “Sufi” Magzine In Tradition of Urdu Literature

  1. Dr. Hina Kanwal
    Assistant Professor Urdu, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore
  2. Dr. Aamar Iqbal
    Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology, Islamabad
  3. Dr. Ansar Abbas
    Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology, Islamabad
Abstract: The Contribution of Mujallah "SUFI" in the Tradition and evolution of Urdu Literature is commendable. This paper covers the multidimensional role of Mujallah "SUFI" for literature, Sufism and educational uplift at large scale. Mujallah "SUFI" was started by Sufi Muhammad Din Awan from Pindi Bahauddin District Gujrat in 1909. This organ vehemently repudiated the fake practices of so-called Tasawwuf. It regularly published writings both from the Muslims and non-Muslims circle writers. The most eminent poets and writers of the sub-continent contributed for it. Among those, for example the renowned poets like Hali, Josh, Hasrat Mohani, Taloke Chand Mehroom were included. Allama Muhammad Iqbal, and Khawja Hassan Nizami, honorably awarded appreciation letters to this Mujallah. Sorrowfully, its publications came across stoppage in 1940. However, it profoundly provided the foundation for the future-leading literati from Mandi Bahauddin District. The fertile origin and broad base of Urdu literary tradition is indebted to "SUFI" Mujallah.
Keyswords: Educational, Vehemently, repudiated, practices, contributed, appreciation, profoundly, fertile, tradition, indebted
Pages: 289-303
Article: 22 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)22
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Urdu Muhawara Chand Naey Mabahis

  1. Dr. Nadeem Hassan
    Assistant professor, Department of Urdu, University of Chitral
  2. Dr. Farzana Iqbal
    Lecturer, Govt Degree College Abbotabad
  3. Dr. Wali Muhammad
    Lecturer, Department of Urdu, University of Peshawar
Abstract: Idioms are specifically important in any language of the world because they give us a new creative way to express our view and to speak fluently. Unfortunately the new learners of Urdu language don’t know about the authentic definition of Idioms and its usage and meaning in their specific context. In this research paper the researchers have shed light on the nature, combination, types and usage of Urdu Proverbs.
Keyswords: Idiom, definition, types, misconceptions, examples, analysis
Pages: 304-312
Article: 23 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)23
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The Cultural formation, issues of Karachi and Novel of Fehmida Riaz,”Karachi”

  1. Iqbal Ahmad Shah
    PhD Scholar, Department of Urdu, B.Z.U Multan
  2. Dr. Muhammad Asif
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, B.Z.U Multan
Abstract: Karachi has always enjoyed the status of being the central city of Indus Valley Civilization. It is home to the heritage of the civilizations of Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa and Kot Deji which reflects its antiquity. That’s why, the foreign invaders have been invading it. The Aryan, Muhammad Bin Qasim, The Mughals and The English have ruled this city. Then, post partition settlement of migrants and overpopulation gave rise to those issues in Karachi which continue to plague it even today. Fahmeeda Riaz’s Novel, “Karachi” indicates those challenges. This novel may well be regarded as an Elegy of Karachi.
Keyswords: Karachi, Indus valley civilization, Fahmeed Riaz, Novel, issues
Pages: 313-322
Article: 24 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)24
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Jillani Kamran's Longest Poem 'Bagh-e-Dunya': A Critical Study

  1. Muhammad Ashraf
    Lecturer, Department of Urdu, Emerson University, Multan
  2. Muhammad Azhar
    Ph.D Scholar, Department of Urdu, B.Z.U Multan
Abstract: Jillani Kamran is known as a representative poet of Modern Urdu Poetry due to his long poems. His Poems 'Yemen ka Shair Janoobii France Main', 'Abe namer', 'Naqsh-e-Kaf-e-Pa' and 'Baghe-e-Dunya' are considered very important as they explicitly portray the significant elements of Islamic culture and civilization. His longest poem 'Bagh-e-Dunya' sees the revolution of Iran as a symbolic event that can be considered the revival (renaissance) of Islam if modern thought can be utilised in the Islamic world to achieve revolutionary changes. This poem contains the essence of all the events that occurred on a national and international level; they include modernism, existentialism, loneliness, individual struggle, the ethos of Islamic and western societies and cultures, and the dominance of western civilization. Moreover, Bagh-e-Dunya vibrantly depicts various scenarios, colours, and tastes of our life and world that are rooted in the thoughts of Islamic culture and civilization
Keyswords: Jillani Kamran, Bagh-e-Dunya, modernism, renaissance, revival, existentialism, loneliness
Pages: 323-349
Article: 25 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)25
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Fazal Ahmad Karim Fazli as a Poet

  1. Dr. Samreen Liaquat
    Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Abdul Haq campus, Karachi
Abstract: Poet and novelist Fazal Ahmad Karim Fazli was born on November 4, 1906 in Bahraich (Uttar Pradesh) and died on December 17, 1981 in Karachi. Educated at Allahabad and Oxford University. He held many important government posts in Bengal. After partition, he came to Pakistan and served as the Secretary, Department of Education, Government of East Pakistan. For some time he was also the Secretary of the Ministry of Kashmir Affairs. After retiring, Fazli made several films in Karachi. In 1951, at the invitation of the US government, he lectured as a guest lecturer in various US universities. "Until Blood and Liver" and "Until Magic" are his novels which made him famous but Fazli worked in both poetry and prose genres. His poetry collections Naghma Zindagi and Chashma Ghazal were published. He also recited a large number of poems on national and national themes. Fazli is a respected name in ghazal. In his ghazals, there are good examples of expressions of joy, sorrow, sadness, delicate symbols and allusions of love and emotions. This article is about his poetry.
Keyswords: Fazal Ahmad Karim Fazli, Urdu Poet, Urdu Poetry
Pages: 350-366
Article: 26 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)26
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Linguistic Discussions and Modern Requirements in Urdu Language

  1. Dr. Mahmood ul Hassan
    Assistant Professor, Urdu Department, NUML, Islamabad
  2. Sajida Sultana
    Scholar Ph.D Urdu, NUML, Islamabad
Abstract: Basic Linguistic debates in Urdu Language are found in form of books, grammar books and dictionaries. These books were written in view of teaching requirements. Its writers and compilers were from local scholars and European orientalists. Overviewing new linguistic discussions in this article, it has been deduced that least work was done in research and no benefit has been taken from new linguistic techniques.
Keyswords: Basic, Debates, Grammar, Books, Orientalists, Techniques
Pages: 367-375
Article: 27 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)27
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Study of Progressive Elements and Trends in Urdu Fiction Writers of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

  1. Naveed Ali Khan
    Ph.D Scholar, Department of Urdu, University of Peshawar
  2. Dr. Badshah Munir Bukhari
    Associate Professor, University of Peshawar
Abstract: Urdu fiction has been written in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa since the beginning of 20th century, when the progressive movement started. The problems of this region were different from other parts of India and the exploitative class here was not the same as in the rest of the world so the progressive resistance of this region was slightly different. Humanitarian, Socio-Economic Political Exploitation has been a leading interest of progressives in literature. This research paper analyzes the trends and developments that have been expressed by fiction writers.
Keyswords: progressive movement, fiction, Urdu, literature, trends, resistance
Pages: 376-388
Article: 28 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/makhz.2021(2-I)28
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